We present an approach to selectively examine an asymmetric potential in the buried layer of solar cell devices by means of nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy. Detecting second harmonic generation signals while resonant to the SiO2 core level, we directly observe existence of the band bending effect in the SiO2 nanolayer, buried in the heterostructures of Al/LiF/SiO2/Si, TiO2/SiO2/Si, and /SiO2/Si. The results demonstrate high sensitivity of the method to the asymmetric potential that determines performance of functional materials for photovoltaics or other optoelectronic devices.
Detecting driving potentials at the buried SiO2 nanolayers in solar cells by chemical-selective nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy
Masafumi Horio, Toshihide Sumi, James Bullock, Yasuyuki Hirata, Masashige Miyamoto, Bailey R. Nebgen, Tetsuya Wada, Tomoaki Senoo, Yuki Tsujikawa, Yuya Kubota, Shigeki Owada, Kensuke Tono, Makina Yabashi, Takushi Iimori, Yoshihiro Miyauchi, Michael W. Zuerch, Iwao Matsuda, Craig P. Schwartz, Walter S. Drisdell; Detecting driving potentials at the buried SiO2 nanolayers in solar cells by chemical-selective nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 17 July 2023; 123 (3): 031602. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0156171
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