We implemented, optimized, and fully tested a superconducting Josephson junction fabrication process over multiple runs tailored for integrated digital circuits that are used for control and readout of superconducting qubits operating at millikelvin temperatures. This process was optimized for highly energy efficient rapid single flux quantum (ERSFQ) circuits with critical currents reduced by a factor of ∼10 as compared to those operated at 4.2 K. Specifically, it implemented Josephson junctions with 10 μA unit critical current fabricated with 10 μA/μm2 critical current density. In order to circumvent the substantial size increase in the SFQ circuit inductors, we employed an NbN high kinetic inductance layer with 8.5 pH/sq sheet inductance. Similarly, to maintain the small size of junction resistive shunts, we used a non-superconducting PdAu alloy with 4.0 Ω/sq sheet resistance. For integration with quantum circuits in a multi-chip module, 5 and 10 μm height bump processes were also optimized. To keep the fabrication process in check, we developed and thoroughly tested a comprehensive process control monitor chip set.
High density fabrication process for single flux quantum circuits
Note: This paper is part of the APL Special Collection on Advances in Superconducting Logic.
D. Yohannes, M. Renzullo, J. Vivalda, A. C. Jacobs, M. Yu, J. Walter, A. F. Kirichenko, I. V. Vernik, O. A. Mukhanov; High density fabrication process for single flux quantum circuits. Appl. Phys. Lett. 22 May 2023; 122 (21): 212601. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0152552
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