As engineered electromagnetic covers based on (space-) time modulated metamaterials and metasurfaces, Doppler cloaks are able to compensate the Doppler effect induced by the motion of a scatterer, making it appear as if it were at rest to a detecting radar system. Perfect Doppler compensation can be theoretically always achieved for any relative velocity and motion direction of the cloaked scatterer with respect to the detecting system. However, the motion can be still detected from the cross section variation of the Doppler cloaked scatterer, especially under oblique incidence illumination. The challenge is, therefore, to have a proper Doppler compensation and maintain the amount of scattered energy toward the detection system as much constant as possible with respect to the illumination angle. In this Letter, we propose the design of self-adaptive retro-reflective planar Doppler cloak composed of a pair of space-time modulated metasurfaces: the first metasurface focuses the incident field in a specific location on the second metasurface, which is designed for enabling retro-reflection and Doppler frequency shift compensation. Here, the self-adaptive Doppler cloak is applied to a metallic planar reflector, moving toward its normal direction, and illuminated by an oblique plane wave. We demonstrate that the proposed Doppler cloak can perform frequency conversion and simultaneously maintain the radar cross section of the reflector as much stable as possible within an angular range of about 60° centered at the normal direction. The self-adaptive Doppler cloak may enhance the undetectability of cloaked moving objects.
Self-adaptive retro-reflective Doppler cloak based on planar space-time modulated metasurfaces
Note: This paper is part of the APL Special Collection on Time Modulated Metamaterials.
X. Fang, M. Li, D. Ramaccia, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, D. Ding; Self-adaptive retro-reflective Doppler cloak based on planar space-time modulated metasurfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett. 9 January 2023; 122 (2): 021702. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0132125
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