Ceramic capacitors are ubiquitously used in high power and pulse power applications, but their low energy density, especially at high temperatures (>150 °C), limits their fields of application. One of the reasons is the low energy efficiency under high electric fields and/or at high temperatures. In this work, equimolar Sm3+ and Ti4+ cations were doped in NaNbO3 to increase relaxor characteristics and energy storage properties. The optimal recoverable energy density Wrec of 6.5 J/cm3 and energy efficiency η of 96% were attained in the ceramics with 10% (Sm, Ti) concentration (SmT10). Dense microstructure and low dielectric loss were attributed to the high energy storage performance. Impedance spectra analysis revealed that the grain boundary resistance dominates at low temperatures, while the grain resistance dominates at high temperatures. The ceramics show stable Wrec and η in a broad temperature range of −90 to 200 °C and repeated charge–discharge cycles up to 105. The comprehensive energy storage performance indicates SmT10 ceramics are among potential candidates for ceramic capacitors working at high temperatures.
High comprehensive energy storage properties in (Sm, Ti) co-doped sodium niobate ceramics
Letao Yang, Junlei Qi, Mingcong Yang, Jing Fu, Yiqian Liu, Shun Lan, Bingbing Yang, Fanqi Meng, Weibin Ren, Xinyue Zhang, Jinghan Cai, Yuan-Hua Lin, Jinming Guo, Xi Kong, Ce-Wen Nan; High comprehensive energy storage properties in (Sm, Ti) co-doped sodium niobate ceramics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 8 May 2023; 122 (19): 192901. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0145369
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