Despite extensive reports on highly efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes, rules governing the design of suitable two-dimensional (2D) perovskite templating cation to facilitate formation of optimal emitter landscape for energy cascade remain largely elusive. With factors such as structure, size, functionalization, and charge capable of influencing the distribution of multidimensional perovskite phases, the importance of 2D templating cation design in determining film optoelectronic properties is indisputable. However, typical mono-functionalized 2D templating cations often result in larger lead halide octahedral spacing, which impedes effective charge transport. This has fueled investigation into the use of multiple cations for optimal domain distribution and improved charge transfer kinetics to the emitting species. In this study, we attempt to impart enhanced charge transfer characteristics to the resultant multidimensional perovskite by employing two bi-functionalized aromatic cations, namely, pyridinium ethyl ammonium and imidazolium ethyl ammonium, reminiscent of mono-functionalized phenyl ethyl ammonium, a widely used 2D perovskite templating cation. Although it is proposed that greater intermolecular bonding would enhance charge transfer rates, the simultaneous increase in lead halide octahedral distortion results in quenching of their corresponding 2D and multidimensional perovskite luminescence properties, correlated with increased defect density within the material. This manifests in the form of shorter PL decay lifetimes, lower PLQY, and device performance arising from inferior energy funneling. This study highlights the importance of designing 2D perovskite templating cations offering better transport and reduced octahedral distortion for the development of energy cascade-efficient, multidimensional perovskites.
Molecular design of two-dimensional perovskite cations for efficient energy cascade in perovskite light-emitting diodes
Note: This paper is part of the APL Special Collection on New Solution-processed Perovskites and Perovskite-inspired Optoelectronic Materials and Devices.
Nur Fadilah Jamaludin, Benny Febriansyah, Yan Fong Ng, Natalia Yantara, Mingjie Li, David Giovanni, Jianhui Fu, Yeow Boon Tay, Tom Baikie, Tze Chien Sum, Nripan Mathews, Subodh Mhaisalkar; Molecular design of two-dimensional perovskite cations for efficient energy cascade in perovskite light-emitting diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 11 October 2021; 119 (15): 154101. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0061840
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