Integrated circuits are building blocks in millimeter-wave handsets and base stations, requiring nonlinear characterization to optimize performance and energy efficiency. Today's sources use digital-to-analog converters to synthesize arbitrary electrical waveforms for nonlinear characterization, but this approach demands even faster integrated circuits to increase the bandwidth to millimeter-waves. Optically derived sources are a potential path to generate precise millimeter-waves and arbitrary waveforms using additive frequency synthesis. In this work, we demonstrate optically derived millimeter-waves up to 99.2 GHz with phase and amplitude control that could be locked to an optical reference. Our approach uses a 1550 nm electro-optic frequency comb with a terahertz of bandwidth. A programmable spectral filter selects two wavelengths from the optical comb, illuminating a modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode on a coplanar waveguide. We then tune the phase and amplitude by varying the optical phase and amplitude in the programmable spectral filter. The result of our work is electro-optically derived millimeter-waves at (24.8, 49.6, 74.4, and 99.2) GHz with phase and amplitude control, enabling arbitrary repetitive waveform generation.
Electro-optically derived millimeter-wave sources with phase and amplitude control
Note: This paper is part of the APL Special Collection on Advances in 5G Physics, Materials, and Devices.
Bryan T. Bosworth, Nick R. Jungwirth, Kassiopeia Smith, Jerome Cheron, Franklyn Quinlan, Madison Woodson, Jesse Morgan, Andreas Beling, Ari Feldman, Dylan Williams, Nathan D. Orloff, Christian J. Long; Electro-optically derived millimeter-wave sources with phase and amplitude control. Appl. Phys. Lett. 11 October 2021; 119 (15): 151106. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0058815
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