The growth of large-area diamond films with low dislocation density is a landmark in the fabrication of diamond-based power electronic devices or high-energy particle detectors. Here, we report the development of a growth strategy based on the use of micrometric laser-pierced hole arrays to reduce dislocation densities in heteroepitaxial chemical vapor deposition diamond. We show that, under optimal growth conditions, this strategy leads to a reduction in dislocation density by two orders of magnitude to reach an average value of 6 × 105 cm−2 in the region where lateral growth occurred, which is equivalent to that typically measured for commercial type Ib single crystal diamonds.

1.
S.
Yamasaki
,
E.
Gheeraert
, and
Y.
Koide
, “
Doping and interface of homoepitaxial diamond for electronic applications
,”
MRS Bull.
39
(
6
),
499
503
(
2014
).
2.
S.
Shikata
, “
Single crystal diamond wafers for high power electronics
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
65
,
168
175
(
2016
).
3.
A.
Denisenko
and
E.
Kohn
, “
Diamond power devices. Concepts and limits
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
14
(
3-7
),
491
498
(
2005
).
4.
M.
Trejo
,
G. H.
Jessen
,
K. D.
Chabak
,
J. K.
Gillespie
,
A.
Crespo
,
M.
Kossler
,
V.
Trimble
,
D.
Langley
,
E. R.
Heller
,
B.
Claflin
 et al, “
Progress towards III-nitrides HEMTs on free-standing diamond substrates for thermal management
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
208
(
2
),
439
444
(
2011
).
5.
L.
Bäni
,
A.
Alexopoulos
,
M.
Artuso
,
F.
Bachmair
,
M.
Bartosik
,
J.
Beacham
,
H.
Beck
,
V.
Bellini
,
V.
Belyaev
,
B.
Bentele
 et al, “
Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments
,”
J. Instrum.
13
(
01
),
C01029
(
2018
).
6.
H.
Kagan
,
A.
Alexopoulos
,
M.
Artuso
,
F.
Bachmair
,
L.
Bäni
,
M.
Bartosik
,
J.
Beacham
,
H.
Beck
,
V.
Bellini
,
V.
Belyaev
 et al, “
Diamond detector technology, status and perspectives
,”
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A
924
,
297
300
(
2019
).
7.
H.
Yamada
,
A.
Chayahara
,
Y.
Mokuno
,
N.
Tsubouchi
, and
S.-I.
Shikata
, “
Uniform growth and repeatable fabrication of inch-sized wafers of a single-crystal diamond
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
33
,
27
31
(
2013
).
8.
G.
Shu
,
B.
Dai
,
V. G.
Ralchenko
,
A. A.
Khomich
,
E. E.
Ashkinazi
,
A. P.
Bolshakov
,
S. N.
Bokova-Sirosh
,
K.
Liu
,
J.
Zhao
,
J.
Han
 et al, “
Epitaxial growth of mosaic diamond: Mapping of stress and defects in crystal junction with a confocal Raman spectroscopy
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
463
,
19
26
(
2017
).
9.
H. Y.
Shinya Ohmagari
,
N.
Tsubouchi
,
H.
Umezawa
,
A.
Chayahara
,
A.
Seki
,
F.
Kawaii
,
H.
Saitoh
, and
Y.
Mokuno
, “
Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on diamond mosaic wafers: Dislocation reduction to mitigate the effect of coalescence boundaries
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
114
,
082104
(
2019
).
10.
Y.
Ando
,
J.
Kuwabara
,
K.
Suzuki
, and
A.
Sawabe
, “
Patterned growth of heteroepitaxial diamond
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
13
(
11-12
),
1975
1979
(
2004
).
11.
H.
Aida
,
S.-W.
Kim
,
K.
Ikejiri
,
Y.
Kawamata
,
K.
Koyama
,
H.
Kodama
, and
A.
Sawabe
, “
Fabrication of freestanding heteroepitaxial diamond substrate via micropatterns and microneedles
,”
Appl. Phys. Express
9
(
3
),
035504
(
2016
).
12.
H.
Aida
,
K.
Ikejiri
,
S.-W.
Kim
,
K.
Koyama
,
Y.
Kawamata
,
H.
Kodama
, and
A.
Sawabe
, “
Overgrowth of diamond layers on diamond microneedles: New concept for freestanding diamond substrate by heteroepitaxy
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
66
,
77
82
(
2016
).
13.
T.
Yoshikawa
,
H.
Kodama
,
S.
Kono
,
K.
Suzuki
, and
A.
Sawabe
, “
Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films grown on Ir(100) substrates via patterned nucleation growth
,”
Thin Solid Films
594
,
120
128
(
2015
).
14.
M.
Schreck
,
S.
Gsell
,
R.
Brescia
, and
M.
Fischer
, “
Ion bombardment induced buried lateral growth: The key mechanism for the synthesis of single crystal diamond wafers
,”
Sci. Rep.
7
,
44462
(
2017
).
15.
A. F.
Sartori
,
M.
Fischer
,
S.
Gsell
, and
M.
Schreck
, “
In situ boron doping during heteroepitaxial growth of diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
209
(
9
),
1643
1650
(
2012
).
16.
M.
Fischer
,
R.
Brescia
,
S.
Gsell
,
M.
Schreck
,
T.
Brugger
,
T.
Greber
,
J.
Osterwalder
, and
B.
Stritzker
, “
Growth of twin-free heteroepitaxial diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si(111)
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
104
(
12
),
123531
(
2008
).
17.
M.
Fischer
,
S.
Gsell
,
M.
Schreck
,
R.
Brescia
, and
B.
Stritzker
, “
Preparation of 4-inch Ir/YSZ/Si(001) substrates for the large-area deposition of single-crystal diamond
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
17
(
7-10
),
1035
1038
(
2008
).
18.
K. H.
Lee
,
S.
Saada
,
J.-C.
Arnault
,
R.
Moalla
,
G.
Saint-Girons
,
R.
Bachelet
,
H.
Bensalah
,
I.
Stenger
,
J.
Barjon
,
A.
Tallaire
 et al, “
Epitaxy of iridium on SrTiO3/Si (001): A promising scalable substrate for diamond heteroepitaxy
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
66
,
67
76
(
2016
).
19.
K. H.
Lee
, “
Hétéroépitaxie de films de diamant sur Ir/SrTiO3/Si (001): une voie prometteuse pour l'élargissement des substrats
,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris-Saclay,
2017
).
20.
J. C.
Arnault
,
K. H.
Lee
,
J.
Delchevalrie
,
J.
Penuelas
,
L.
Mehmel
,
O.
Brinza
,
S.
Temgoua
,
I.
Stenger
,
J.
Letellier
,
G.
Saint-Girons
 et al, “
Epitaxial diamond on Ir/SrTiO3/Si (001): From sequential material characterizations to fabrication of lateral Schottky diodes
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
105
,
107768
(
2020
).
21.
S.
Gsell
,
T.
Bauer
,
J.
Goldfuß
,
M.
Schreck
, and
B.
Stritzker
, “
A route to diamond wafers by epitaxial deposition on silicon via iridium/yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
84
(
22
),
4541
4543
(
2004
).
22.
C.
Stehl
,
M.
Fischer
,
S.
Gsell
,
E.
Berdermann
,
M. S.
Rahman
,
M.
Traeger
,
O.
Klein
, and
M.
Schreck
, “
Efficiency of dislocation density reduction during heteroepitaxial growth of diamond for detector applications
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
(
15
),
151905
(
2013
).
23.
M.
Schreck
,
A.
Schury
,
F.
Hörmann
,
H.
Roll
, and
B.
Stritzker
, “
Mosaicity reduction during growth of heteroepitaxial diamond films on iridium buffer layers: Experimental results and numerical simulations
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
91
(
2
),
676
685
(
2002
).
24.
J.
Achard
,
A.
Tallaire
,
V.
Mille
,
M.
Naamoun
,
O.
Brinza
,
A.
Boussadi
,
L.
William
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Improvement of dislocation density in thick CVD single crystal diamond films by coupling H2/O2 plasma etching and chemo-mechanical or ICP treatment of HPHT substrates
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
211
(
10
),
2264
2267
(
2014
).
25.
T. N.
Tran Thi
,
J.
Morse
,
D.
Caliste
,
B.
Fernandez
,
D.
Eon
,
J.
Hartwig
,
C.
Barbay
,
C.
Mer-Calfati
,
N.
Tranchant
,
J. C.
Arnault
 et al, “
Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications
,”
J. Appl. Crystallogr.
50
(
Pt. 2
),
561
569
(
2017
).
26.
R. C.
Burns
,
A. I.
Chumakov
,
S. H.
Connell
,
D.
Dube
,
H. P.
Godfried
,
J. O.
Hansen
,
J.
Hartwig
,
J.
Hoszowska
,
F.
Masiello
,
L.
Mkhonza
 et al, “
HPHT growth and x-ray characterization of high-quality type IIa diamond
,”
J. Phys.
21
(
36
),
364224
(
2009
).
27.
A.
Tallaire
,
V.
Mille
,
O.
Brinza
,
T. N.
Tran Thi
,
J. M.
Brom
,
Y.
Loguinov
,
A.
Katrusha
,
A.
Koliadin
, and
J.
Achard
, “
Thick CVD diamond films grown on high-quality type IIa HPHT diamond substrates from New Diamond Technology
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
77
,
146
152
(
2017
).
28.
Y. H.
Tang
and
B.
Golding
, “
Stress engineering of high-quality single crystal diamond by heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
108
(
5
),
052101
(
2016
).
29.
Y.-H.
Tang
,
B.
Bi
, and
B.
Golding
, “
Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth
,”
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
1734
,
mrsf14-1734-r05-04
(
2015
).
30.
K.
Ichikawa
,
K.
Kurone
,
H.
Kodama
,
K.
Suzuki
, and
A.
Sawabe
, “
High crystalline quality heteroepitaxial diamond using grid-patterned nucleation and growth on Ir
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
94
,
92
100
(
2019
).
31.
S.
Ohmagari
,
H.
Yamada
,
N.
Tsubouchi
,
H.
Umezawa
,
A.
Chayahara
,
S.
Tanaka
, and
Y.
Mokuno
, “
Large reduction of threading dislocations in diamond by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition accompanying W incorporations
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
113
(
3
),
032108
(
2018
).
32.
S.
Ohmagari
,
H.
Yamada
,
N.
Tsubouchi
,
H.
Umezawa
,
A.
Chayahara
,
Y.
Mokuno
, and
D.
Takeuchi
, “
Toward high‐performance diamond electronics: Control and annihilation of dislocation propagation by metal‐assisted termination
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
216
(
21
),
1900498
(
2019
).
33.
K.
Linthicum
,
T.
Gehrke
,
D.
Thomson
,
E.
Carlson
,
P.
Rajagopal
,
T.
Smith
,
D.
Batchelor
, and
R.
Davis
, “
Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
75
(
2
),
196
198
(
1999
).
34.
A.
Usui
,
H.
Sunakawa
,
A.
Sakai
, and
A.
Yamaguchi
, “
Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy
,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2
36
,
L899
(
1997
).
35.
Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth
, edited by
G.
Dhanaraj
,
K.
Byrappa
,
V.
Prasad
, and
M.
Dudley
(
Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg
,
Germany
,
2010
).
36.
A.
Tallaire
,
O.
Brinza
,
V.
Mille
,
L.
William
, and
J.
Achard
, “
Reduction of dislocations in single crystal diamond by lateral growth over a macroscopic hole
,”
Adv. Mater.
29
,
1604823
(
2017
).
37.
A.
Tallaire
,
T.
Ouisse
,
A.
Lantreibecq
,
R.
Cours
,
M.
Legros
,
H.
Bensalah
,
J.
Barjon
,
V.
Mille
,
O.
Brinza
, and
J.
Achard
, “
Identification of dislocations in synthetic chemically vapor deposited diamond single crystals
,”
Cryst. Growth Des.
16
(
5
),
2741
2746
(
2016
).
38.
M.
Naamoun
,
A.
Tallaire
,
F.
Silva
,
J.
Achard
,
P.
Doppelt
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Etch-pit formation mechanism induced on HPHT and CVD diamond single crystals by H2/O2 plasma etching treatment
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
209
(
9
),
1715
1720
(
2012
).
39.
J.
Achard
,
F.
Silva
,
O.
Brinza
,
X.
Bonnin
,
V.
Mille
,
R.
Issaoui
,
M.
Kasu
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Identification of etch-pit crystallographic faces induced on diamond surface by H2/O2 etching plasma treatment
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
206
(
9
),
1949
1954
(
2009
).
40.
A.
Tallaire
,
J.
Achard
,
F.
Silva
,
R. S.
Sussmann
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Homoepitaxial deposition of high-quality thick diamond films: Effect of growth parameters
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
14
(
3-7
),
249
254
(
2005
).
41.
P.
Martineau
,
M.
Gaukroger
,
R.
Khan
, and
D.
Evans
, “
Effect of steps on dislocations in CVD diamond grown on {001} substrates
,”
Phys. Status Solidi C
6
(
8
),
1953
1957
(
2009
).
42.
O.
Brinza
,
J.
Achard
,
F.
Silva
,
X.
Bonnin
,
P.
Barroy
,
K. D.
Corte
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Dependence of CVD diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
205
(
9
),
2114
2120
(
2008
).
You do not currently have access to this content.