Most experiments on ultrafast magnetodynamics have been conducted using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. Here, we compare the Kerr effect's magnetic sensitivity to the spin dynamics measured by photoemission. The magnetization dynamics on an Fe/W(110) thin film are probed by spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and the Kerr effect. The results reveal similarities between the spin dynamics at low binding energy and the response probed by the Kerr effect. Therefore, the Kerr effect probes states relevant for spin transport and spin flips but may not be sensitive to the entire magnetic moment in femtosecond spin dynamics experiments.

1.
Y.
Yang
,
R. B.
Wilson
,
J.
Gorchon
,
C.-H.
Lambert
,
S.
Salahuddin
, and
J.
Bokor
, “
Ultrafast magnetization reversal by picosecond electrical pulses
,”
Sci. Adv.
3
,
e1603117
(
2017
).
2.
M. H.
Kryder
,
E. C.
Gage
,
T. W.
McDaniel
,
W. A.
Challener
,
R. E.
Rottmayer
,
G.
Ju
,
Y.
Hsia
, and
M. F.
Erden
, “
Heat assisted magnetic recording
,”
Proc. IEEE
96
,
1810
1835
(
2008
).
3.
E.
Beaurepaire
,
J.-C.
Merle
,
A.
Daunois
, and
J.-Y.
Bigot
, “
Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
76
,
4250
4253
(
1996
).
4.
G.
Ju
,
A.
Vertikov
,
A. V.
Nurmikko
,
C.
Canady
,
G.
Xiao
,
R. F. C.
Farrow
, and
A.
Cebollada
, “
Ultrafast nonequilibrium spin dynamics in a ferromagnetic thin film
,”
Phys. Rev. B
57
,
R700
R703
(
1998
).
5.
H.
Regensburger
,
R.
Vollmer
, and
J.
Kirschner
, “
Time-resolved magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation from the Ni(110) surface
,”
Phys. Rev. B
61
,
14716
14722
(
2000
).
6.
B.
Koopmans
,
M.
van Kampen
,
J. T.
Kohlhepp
, and
W. J. M.
de Jonge
, “
Ultrafast magneto-optics in nickel: Magnetism or optics?
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
85
,
844
847
(
2000
).
7.
L.
Guidoni
,
E.
Beaurepaire
, and
J.-Y.
Bigot
, “
Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: Thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
89
,
017401
(
2002
).
8.
T.
Kampfrath
,
R. G.
Ulbrich
,
F.
Leuenberger
,
M.
Münzenberg
,
B.
Sass
, and
W.
Felsch
, “
Ultrafast magneto-optical response of iron thin films
,”
Phys. Rev. B
65
,
104429
(
2002
).
9.
R.
Wilks
,
R. J.
Hicken
,
M.
Ali
,
B. J.
Hickey
,
J. D. R.
Buchanan
,
A. T. G.
Pym
, and
B. K.
Tanner
, “
Investigation of ultrafast demagnetization and cubic optical nonlinearity of Ni in the polar geometry
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
95
,
7441
7443
(
2004
).
10.
P. M.
Oppeneer
and
A.
Liebsch
, “
Ultrafast demagnetization in Ni: Theory of magneto-optics for non-equilibrium electron distributions
,”
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
16
,
5519
(
2004
).
11.
G. P.
Zhang
,
W.
Hubner
,
G.
Lefkidis
,
Y.
Bai
, and
T. F.
George
, “
Paradigm of the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect for femtosecond magnetism
,”
Nat. Phys.
5
,
499
(
2009
).
12.
C.
La-O-Vorakiat
,
M.
Siemens
,
M. M.
Murnane
,
H. C.
Kapteyn
,
S.
Mathias
,
M.
Aeschlimann
,
P.
Grychtol
,
R.
Adam
,
C. M.
Schneider
,
J. M.
Shaw
,
H.
Nembach
, and
T. J.
Silva
, “
Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
103
,
257402
(
2009
).
13.
W.
You
,
P.
Tengdin
,
C.
Chen
,
X.
Shi
,
D.
Zusin
,
Y.
Zhang
,
C.
Gentry
,
A.
Blonsky
,
M.
Keller
,
P. M.
Oppeneer
,
H.
Kapteyn
,
Z.
Tao
, and
M.
Murnane
, “
Revealing the nature of the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in Ni by correlating extreme ultraviolet magneto-optic and photoemission spectroscopies
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
121
,
077204
(
2018
).
14.
C.
Stamm
,
T.
Kachel
,
N.
Pontius
,
R.
Mitzner
,
T.
Quast
,
K.
Holldack
,
S.
Khan
,
C.
Lupulescu
,
E. F.
Aziz
,
M.
Wietstruk
,
H. A.
Dürr
, and
W.
Eberhardt
, “
Femtosecond modification of electron localization and transfer of angular momentum in nickel
,”
Nat. Mater.
6
,
740
(
2007
).
15.
S.
Eich
,
A.
Stange
,
A.
Carr
,
J.
Urbancic
,
T.
Popmintchev
,
M.
Wiesenmayer
,
K.
Jansen
,
A.
Ruffing
,
S.
Jakobs
,
T.
Rohwer
,
S.
Hellmann
,
C.
Chen
,
P.
Matyba
,
L.
Kipp
,
K.
Rossnagel
,
M.
Bauer
,
M.
Murnane
,
H.
Kapteyn
,
S.
Mathias
, and
M.
Aeschlimann
, “
Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti: Sapphire lasers
,”
J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
195
,
231
236
(
2014
).
16.
R.
Gort
,
K.
Bühlmann
,
S.
Däster
,
G.
Salvatella
,
N.
Hartmann
,
Y.
Zemp
,
S.
Holenstein
,
C.
Stieger
,
A.
Fognini
,
T. U.
Michlmayr
,
T.
Bähler
,
A.
Vaterlaus
, and
Y.
Acremann
, “
Early stages of ultrafast spin dynamics in a 3d ferromagnet
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
121
,
087206
(
2018
).
17.
A.
Weber
,
F.
Pressacco
,
S.
Günther
,
E.
Mancini
,
P. M.
Oppeneer
, and
C. H.
Back
, “
Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics of thin Fe/W(110) films: Comparison of time- and spin-resolved photoemission with time-resolved magneto-optic experiments
,”
Phys. Rev. B
84
,
132412
(
2011
).
18.
S.
Miesch
,
A.
Fognini
,
Y.
Acremann
,
A.
Vaterlaus
, and
T. U.
Michlmayr
, “
Fe on W(110), a stable magnetic reference system
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
109
,
013905
(
2011
).
19.
C.
Tusche
,
M.
Ellguth
,
A. A.
Ünal
,
C.-T.
Chiang
,
A.
Winkelmann
,
A.
Krasyuk
,
M.
Hahn
,
G.
Schönhense
, and
J.
Kirschner
, “
Spin resolved photoelectron microscopy using a two-dimensional spin-polarizing electron mirror
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
99
,
032505
(
2011
).
20.
M.
Kolbe
,
P.
Lushchyk
,
B.
Petereit
,
H. J.
Elmers
,
G.
Schönhense
,
A.
Oelsner
,
C.
Tusche
, and
J.
Kirschner
, “
Highly efficient multichannel spin-polarization detection
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
107
,
207601
(
2011
).
21.
E.
Carpene
,
E.
Mancini
,
C.
Dallera
,
M.
Brenna
,
E.
Puppin
, and
S. D.
Silvestri
, “
Dynamics of electron-magnon interaction and ultrafast demagnetization in thin iron films
,”
Phys. Rev. B
78
,
174422
(
2008
).
22.
T.
Greber
,
T. J.
Kreutz
, and
J.
Osterwalder
, “
Photoemission above the fermi level: The top of the minority d band in nickel
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
79
,
4465
4468
(
1997
).
23.
J.
Kröger
,
T.
Greber
,
T.
Kreutz
, and
J.
Osterwalder
, “
The photoemission fermi edge as a sample thermometer?
,”
J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
113
,
241
251
(
2001
).
24.
S.
Eich
,
M.
Plötzing
,
M.
Rollinger
,
S.
Emmerich
,
R.
Adam
,
C.
Chen
,
H. C.
Kapteyn
,
M. M.
Murnane
,
L.
Plucinski
,
D.
Steil
,
B.
Stadtmüller
,
M.
Cinchetti
,
M.
Aeschlimann
,
C. M.
Schneider
, and
S.
Mathias
, “
Band structure evolution during the ultrafast ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in cobalt
,”
Sci. Adv.
3
,
e1602094
(
2017
).
25.
D.
Kutnyakhov
,
S.
Chernov
,
K.
Medjanik
,
R.
Wallauer
,
C.
Tusche
,
M.
Ellguth
,
S. A.
Nepijko
,
M.
Krivenkov
,
J.
Braun
,
S.
Borek
,
J.
Minár
,
H.
Ebert
,
H. J.
Elmers
, and
G.
Schönhense
, “
Spin texture of time-reversal symmetry invariant surface states on W(110)
,”
Sci. Rep.
6
,
29394
(
2016
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.