X-rays generated through tribological processes differ from those obtained with conventional X-ray tubes in that a substantial portion of the total energy is emitted in pulses of order 10 ns in duration. The short duration of these pulses usually causes solid-state detectors to register pileup events that can make the corresponding spectrum unreliable as a characterization tool. In this work, we find that a solid angle subtended by the detector of 5×106 is necessary to obtain the true spectra of X-rays generated from peeling adhesive tape in a moderate vacuum. The maximum individual photon energy is found to be 30 keV, which is about half of that reported in previous studies that overlook the effects of pileup. Being able to obtain a reliable spectrum may help us understand the physical processes behind this phenomenon so that it can be optimized for present and future applications.

1.
C. G.
Camara
,
J. V.
Escobar
,
J. R.
Hird
, and
S. J.
Putterman
,
Nature
455
,
1089
(
2008
).
2.
V. A.
Klyuev
,
Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.
10
,
480
(
1984
).
3.
V. A.
Klyuev
,
Y.
Toporov
,
A. D.
Aliev
,
A. E.
Chalykh
, and
A. G.
Lipson
,
Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.
34
,
361
(
1989
).
4.
B. V.
Deryaguin
,
N. A.
Krotova
, and
V. P.
Smilga
,
Adhesion of Solids (Consultants Bureau)
(
Consultants Bureau, Plenum Publishing Corporation
,
1978
).
5.
G.
Pezzotti
,
C.
Camara
,
E.
Marin
,
W. L.
Zhu
,
D.
Green
,
A.
Collins
, and
S.
Putterman
,
J. Mater. Chem. C
7
,
7708
(
2019
).
6.
H. T.
Baytekin
,
A. Z.
Patashinski
,
M.
Branicki
,
B.
Baytekin
,
S.
Soh
, and
B. A.
Grzybowski
,
Science
333
,
308
(
2011
).
7.
E.
Constable
,
J.
Horvat
, and
R. A.
Lewis
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
97
,
3
(
2010
).
8.
H.
Stocker
,
M.
Ruhl
,
A.
Heinrich
,
E.
Mehner
, and
D. C.
Meyer
,
J. Electrost.
71
,
905
(
2013
).
9.
S.
Putterman
,
C. G.
Camara
,
J. V.
Escobar
, and
J.
Hird
, U.S. Patent 8,699,666 (15 April
2014
).
10.
J.
Horvat
and
R. A.
Lewis
,
Opt. Lett.
34
,
2195
(
2009
).
11.
C.
Zhang
,
W.
Tang
,
L. M.
Zhang
,
C. B.
Han
, and
Z. L.
Wang
,
ACS Nano
8
,
8702
(
2014
).
12.
H. L.
Zhang
,
S.
Feng
,
D. L.
He
,
Y. G.
Xu
,
M. H.
Yang
, and
J. B.
Bai
,
Nano Energy
48
,
256
(
2018
).
13.
14.
15.
D. O.
Olawale
,
T.
Dickens
,
W. G.
Sullivan
,
O. I.
Okoli
,
J. O.
Sobanjo
, and
B.
Wang
,
J. Lumin.
131
,
1407
(
2011
).
16.
F.
Bacon
and
V. S.
Albans
,
Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning
(
Archival Facs. Limited
,
1987
).
17.
J. W.
Obreimoff
,
Proc. Royal Soc. London Series A
127
,
290
(
1930
).
19.
E. E.
Donaldson
,
J. T.
Dickinson
, and
X. A.
Shen
,
J. Adhesion
19
,
267
(
1986
).
20.
S. M.
Jeong
,
S.
Song
,
S. K.
Lee
, and
B.
Choi
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
102
,
5
(
2013
).
21.
J. V.
Escobar
, Ph.D. disseration,
University of California
, Los Angeles (
2009
).
22.
W. R.
Harper
,
Contact and Frictional Electrification
(
Oxford Univeristy Press
,
1967
).
23.
Y.
Raizer
,
Gas Discharge Physics
(
Springer
,
1991
).
24.
Z. Y.
Ma
,
J. W.
Fan
, and
J. T.
Dickinson
,
J. Adhesion
25
,
63
(
1988
).
25.
C. G.
Camara
,
J. V.
Escobar
,
J. R.
Hird
, and
S. J.
Putterman
,
Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt.
99
,
613
(
2010
).
26.
K.
Taguchi
,
E. C.
Frey
,
X. L.
Wang
,
J. S.
Iwanczyk
, and
W. C.
Barber
,
Med. Phys.
37
,
3957
(
2010
).
27.
D.
Kramer
,
D.
Lutzenkirchen-Hecht
,
B.
Luhmann
,
K.
Keite-Telgenbuscher
, and
R.
Frahm
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
84
,
7
(
2013
).
28.
J. R.
Hird
,
C. G.
Camara
, and
S. J.
Putterman
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
98
,
3
(
2011
).
29.
J. R.
Hird
,
C. G.
Camara
, and
S. J.
Putterman
, U.S. Patent No. 9,089,038 (21 July
2015
).
30.
E.
Van Cleve
,
B.
Lucas
,
Z.
Ganlieli
,
E. W.
Wong
,
P.
Cortes
,
N.
Mehta
,
D.
Cuadra
,
J.
Fong
,
S.
Hansen
,
A.
Kotowski
, and
C. G.
Camara
,
Proc. SPIE
9590
,
95900F
(
2015
).
31.
S. H.
Pan
and
Z. N.
Zhang
,
Friction
7
,
2
(
2019
).
32.
F. H.
Attix
,
Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry
(
University of Winsconsin Medical School Madison
,
1986
).
33.
R. H.
Redus
,
J. A.
Pantazis
,
T. J.
Pantazis
,
A. C.
Huber
, and
B. J.
Cross
,
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
56
,
2524
(
2009
).
34.
J. G.
Chervenak
and
A.
Liuzzi
,
Phys. Rev. A
12
,
26
(
1975
).
35.
M. J.
Yaffe
,
G. T.
Barnes
,
B. J.
Conway
,
A. G.
Haus
,
A.
Karellas
,
C.
Kimme-Smith
,
P. P.
Lin
,
G.
Mawdsley
,
P.
Rauch
, and
L. N.
Rothenberg
, AAPM Report 29 (August
1990
), available at https://www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/RPT_29.pdf.
36.
C. G.
Camara
,
S. J.
Putterman
, and
A.
Kotowski
,
Proc. SPIE
9590
,
10
(
2015
).
37.
S.
Lee
,
L. C.
Jensen
,
S. C.
Langford
, and
J. T.
Dickinson
,
J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.
9
,
1
(
1995
).
38.
L.
Scudiero
,
J. T.
Dickinson
,
L. C.
Jensen
, and
S. C.
Langford
, “
Electrical transients generated by the peel of a pressure sensitive adhesive from a copper substrate. Part. II. Analysis of fluctuations
,”
J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.
9
(
1
),
27
(
1995
).
You do not currently have access to this content.