Strong light matter interactions between semiconductor quantum dots and optical micro/nanocavities are useful resources for developing quantum information processing devices and for exploring diverse quantum optical phenomena. In pursuit of better device performances and novel physics, it is desirable to achieve a larger coupling constant between the quantum dot and the cavity while keeping the high coherence of the coupled system. In this letter, we report the observation of a large vacuum Rabi splitting of ∼328 μeV using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs-based H0 photonic crystal nanocavity, which possesses a near-diffraction limited mode volume as well as a high experimental Q factor of ∼52 000. The resulting figure of merit of the strongly coupled systems, defined as a ratio of the coupling constant to the cavity decay rate, reaches 6.4, which is the record high value for semiconductor QD-nanocavity systems reported to date.

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