The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is dictated by the signal-to-noise ratio. It was recently noted that the signal-to-noise ratio could be substantially increased via excitation of certain metasurface eigenmodes. Here, we provide a detailed discussion of the wire metasurface eigenmode impact on the sensitivity of MRI. We experimentally show that due to the spatial redistribution of the electromagnetic near field, mediated by the metasurface eigenmode, the received signal from the studied object becomes essentially dependent on its position on the metasurface. Moreover, we analyzed how the metasurface performance significantly depends on the dimensions of an examined object. Our work provides metasurface design guidelines for substantial enhancement of MRI sensitivity.

1.
W. R.
Hendee
, “
Physics and applications of medical imaging
,”
Rev. Mod. Phys.
71
,
S444
(
1999
).
2.
E.
Haacke
,
R.
Brown
,
M.
Thompson
, and
R.
Venkatesan
,
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles and Sequence Design
(
Wiley
,
New York
,
1999
).
3.
R.
Wood
,
K.
Bassett
,
V.
Foerster
,
C.
Spry
, and
L.
Tong
,
1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanners Compared with 3.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanners: Systematic Review of Clinical Effectiveness
(
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health
,
Ottawa
,
2011
).
4.
O.
Ocali
and
E.
Atalar
, “
Ultimate instrincic signal-to-noise ratio in MRI
,”
Magn. Reson. Med.
39
(
3
),
462
473
(
1998
).
5.
J.
Vaughan
and
J.
Griffiths
,
RF Coils for MRI
(
Wiley
,
New York
,
2012
).
6.
N.
Engheta
and
R.
Ziolkowski
,
Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations
(
Wiley-IEEE Press
,
Piscataway, NJ
,
2006
).
7.
A.
Webb
, “
Dielectric materials in magnetic resonance
,”
Concepts Magn. Reson., Part A
38A
,
148
184
(
2011
).
8.
W. M.
Teeuwisse
,
W. M.
Brink
,
K. N.
Haines
, and
A. G.
Webb
, “
Simulations of high permittivity materials for 7 T neuroimaging and evaluation of a new barium titanate-based dielectric
,”
Magn. Reson. Med.
67
,
912
918
(
2012
).
9.
S. A.
Aussenhofer
and
S. A.
Webb
, “
Design and evaluation of a detunable water-based quadrature HEM11 mode dielectric resonator as a new type of volume coil for high field MRI
,”
Magn. Reson. Med.
68
,
1325
(
2012
).
10.
M. C. K.
Wiltshire
,
J. B.
Pendry
,
I. R.
Young
,
D. J.
Larkman
,
D. J.
Gilderdale
, and
J. V.
Hajnal
, “
Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging
,”
Science
291
,
849
(
2001
).
11.
X.
Radu
,
D.
Garray
, and
C.
Craeye
, “
Toward a wire medium endoscope for MRI imaging
,”
Metamaterials
3
,
90
(
2009
).
12.
M. J.
Freire
,
L.
Jelinek
,
R.
Marqués
, and
M.
Lapine
, “
On the applications of μ = −1 metamaterial lenses for magnetic resonance imaging
,”
J. Magn. Reson.
203
,
81
90
(
2010
).
13.
R. R. A.
Syms
,
I. R.
Young
,
M. M.
Ahmad
, and
M.
Rea
, “
Magnetic resonance imaging using linear magneto-inductive waveguides
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
112
,
114911
(
2012
).
14.
C.
Jouvaud
,
R.
Abdeddaim
,
B.
Larrat
, and
J.
de Rosny
, “
Volume coil based on hybridized resonators for magnetic resonance imaging
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
108
,
023503
(
2016
).
15.
E.
Georget
,
M.
Luong
,
A.
Vignaud
,
E.
Giacomini
,
E.
Chazel
,
G.
Ferrand
,
A.
Amadon
,
F.
Mauconduit
,
S.
Enoch
,
G.
Tayeb
,
N.
Bonod
,
C.
Poupon
, and
R.
Abdeddaim
, “
Stacked magnetic resonators for MRI RF coils decoupling
,”
J. Magn. Reson.
275
,
11
18
(
2017
).
16.
C.
Holloway
,
E. F.
Kuester
,
J.
Gordon
,
J.
O'Hara
,
J.
Booth
, and
D.
Smith
, “
An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials
,”
IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag.
54
,
10
35
(
2012
).
17.
S. B.
Glybovski
,
S. A.
Tretyakov
,
P. A.
Belov
,
Y. S.
Kivshar
, and
C. R.
Simovski
, “
Metasurfaces: From microwaves to visible
,”
Phys. Rep.
634
,
1
72
(
2016
).
18.
A. P.
Slobozhanyuk
,
A. N.
Poddubny
,
A. J. E.
Raaijmakers
,
C. A. T.
van den Berg
,
A. V.
Kozachenko
,
I. A.
Dubrovina
,
I. V.
Melchakova
,
Y. S.
Kivshar
, and
P. A.
Belov
, “
Enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging with metasurfaces
,”
Adv. Mater.
28
,
1832
1838
(
2016
).
19.
R.
Schmidt
,
A.
Slobozhanyuk
,
P.
Belov
, and
A.
Webb
, “
Flexible and compact hybrid metasurfaces for enhanced ultra high field in vivo magnetic resonance imaging
,”
Sci. Rep.
7
,
1678
(
2017
).
20.
R.
Schmidt
and
A.
Webb
, “
Metamaterial combining electric- and magnetic-dipole-based configurations for unique dual-band signal enhancement in ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
9
,
34618
(
2017
).
21.
F.
Lemoult
,
G.
Lerosey
,
J.
Rosny
, and
M.
Fink
, “
Resonant metalenses for breaking the diffraction barrier
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
104
,
203901
(
2010
).
22.
F.
Lemoult
,
M.
Fink
, and
G.
Lerosey
, “
Revisiting the wire medium: An ideal resonant metalens
,”
Waves Random Complex Media
21
,
591
613
(
2011
).
23.
J.
Yao
,
X.
Yang
,
X.
Yin
,
G.
Bartal
, and
X.
Zhang
, “
Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
108
,
11327
(
2011
).
24.
M.
Lapine
,
L.
Jelinek
,
R.
Marqués
, and
M. J.
Freire
, “
Exact modelling method for discrete finite metamaterial lens
,”
IET Microwave Antennas Propag.
4
(
8
),
1132
1139
(
2010
).
25.
M.
Lapine
,
L.
Jelinek
,
M. J.
Freire
, and
R.
Marqués
, “
Realistic metamaterial lenses: Limitations imposed by discrete structure
,”
Phys. Rev. B
82
,
165124
(
2010
).
26.
A. V.
Shchelokova
,
A. P.
Slobozhanyuk
,
P.
de Bruin
,
I.
Zivkovic
,
E.
Kallos
,
P. A.
Belov
, and
A.
Webb
, “
Experimental investigation of a metasurface resonator for in vivo imaging at 1.5 T
,”
J. Magn. Reson.
286
,
78
81
(
2018
).
27.
C. E.
Hayes
,
W. A.
Edelstein
,
J. F.
Schenck
,
O. M.
Mueller
, and
M.
Eash
, “
An efficient, highly homogeneous radiofrequency coil for whole-body NMR imaging at 1.5 T
,”
J. Magn. Reson.
63
,
622
628
(
1985
).
28.
S. B.
Glybovski
,
A. V.
Shchelokova
,
A. V.
Kozachenko
,
A. P.
Slobozhanyuk
,
I. V.
Melchakova
,
P. A.
Belov
,
A. V.
Sokolov
,
A. Y.
Efimtsev
, and
V. A.
Fokin
, “
Capacitively-loaded metasurfaces and their application in magnetic resonance imaging
,” in
Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO)
,
Belle Mare, Mauritius
(
2015
).
29.
A. V.
Shchelokova
,
A. P.
Slobozhanyuk
,
I. V.
Melchakova
,
S. B.
Glybovski
,
A. G.
Webb
,
Y. S.
Kivshar
, and
P. A.
Belov
, “
Locally enhanced image quality with tunable hybrid metasurfaces
,”
Phys. Rev. Appl.
(to be published); preprint arXiv:1712.02039 (
2017
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.