We demonstrate frequency conversion by four wave mixing at telecommunication wavelengths using an integrated platform in 3C SiC. The process was enhanced by high-Q and small modal volume ring resonators, allowing the use of mW-level continuous wave powers to pump the nonlinear optical process. From this measurement, we retrieved the nonlinear refractive index of 3C SiC as n2=(5.31±0.04)×1019m2/W.

1.
A. C.
Turner
,
M. A.
Foster
,
A. L.
Gaeta
, and
M.
Lipson
, “
Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator
,”
Opt. Express
16
,
4881
4887
(
2008
).
2.
P. P.
Absil
,
J. V.
Hryniewicz
,
B. E.
Little
,
P. S.
Cho
,
R. A.
Wilson
,
L. G.
Joneckis
, and
P.-T.
Ho
, “
Wavelength conversion in GaAs micro-ring resonators
,”
Opt. Lett.
25
,
554
556
(
2000
).
3.
M. A.
Foster
,
A. C.
Turner
,
R.
Salem
,
M.
Lipson
, and
A. L.
Gaeta
, “
Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides
,”
Opt. Express
15
,
12949
12958
(
2007
).
4.
M. A.
Foster
,
A. C.
Turner
,
J. E.
Sharping
,
B. S.
Schmidt
,
M.
Lipson
, and
A. L.
Gaeta
, “
Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip
,”
Nature
441
,
960
963
(
2006
).
5.
R. H.
Stolen
and
C.
Lin
, “
Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers
,”
Phys. Rev. A
17
,
1448
1453
(
1978
).
6.
S.
Azzini
,
D.
Grassani
,
M.
Galli
,
D.
Gerace
,
M.
Patrini
,
M.
Liscidini
,
P.
Velha
, and
D.
Bajoni
, “
Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
,
031117
(
2013
).
7.
J.
Leuthold
,
C.
Koos
, and
W.
Freude
, “
Nonlinear silicon photonics
,”
Nat. Photonics
4
,
535
(
2010
).
8.
J. S.
Levy
,
A.
Gondarenko
,
M. a
Foster
,
A. C.
Turner-Foster
,
A. L.
Gaeta
, and
M.
Lipson
, “
CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects
,”
Nat. Photonics
4
,
37
40
(
2010
).
9.
H.
Jung
,
C.
Xiong
,
K. Y.
Fong
,
X.
Zhang
, and
H. X.
Tang
, “
Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator
,”
Opt. Lett.
38
,
2810
2813
(
2013
).
10.
B. J. M.
Hausmann
,
I.
Bulu
,
V.
Venkataraman
,
P.
Deotare
, and
M.
Lončar
, “
Diamond nonlinear photonics
,”
Nat. Photonics
8
,
369
374
(
2014
).
11.
J. L.
O'Brien
,
A.
Furusawa
, and
J.
Vučković
, “
Photonic quantum technologies
,”
Nat. Photonics
3
,
687
695
(
2009
).
12.
G.
Calusine
,
A.
Politi
, and
D. D.
Awschalom
, “
Silicon carbide photonic crystal cavities with integrated color centers
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
105
,
011123
(
2014
).
13.
S.
Yamada
,
B.-S.
Song
,
S.
Jeon
,
J.
Upham
,
Y.
Tanaka
,
T.
Asano
, and
S.
Noda
, “
Second-harmonic generation in a silicon-carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavity
,”
Opt. Lett.
39
,
1768
1771
(
2014
).
14.
C.-H.
Cheng
,
C.-L.
Wu
,
Y.-H.
Lin
,
W.-L.
Yan
,
M.-H.
Shih
,
J.-H.
Chang
,
C.-I.
Wu
,
C.-K.
Lee
, and
G.-R.
Lin
, “
Strong optical nonlinearity of the nonstoichiometric silicon carbide
,”
J. Mater. Chem. C
3
,
10164
10176
(
2015
).
15.
X.
Lu
,
J. Y.
Lee
,
S.
Rogers
, and
Q.
Lin
, “
Optical Kerr nonlinearity in a high-Q silicon carbide microresonator
,”
Opt. Express
22
,
30826
30832
(
2014
).
16.
J.
Cardenas
,
M.
Yu
,
Y.
Okawachi
,
C. B.
Poitras
,
R. K.
Lau
,
A.
Dutt
,
A. L.
Gaeta
, and
M.
Lipson
, “
Optical nonlinearities in high-confinement silicon carbide waveguides
,”
Opt. Lett.
40
,
4138
4141
(
2015
).
17.
F.
De Leonardis
,
R. A.
Soref
, and
V. M.
Passaro
, “
Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in silicon carbide
,”
Sci. Rep.
7
,
40924
(
2017
).
18.
F.
Martini
and
A.
Politi
, “
Linear integrated optics in 3C silicon carbide
,”
Opt. Express
25
,
10735
10742
(
2017
).
19.
M. A.
Foster
,
A. C.
Turner
,
M.
Lipson
, and
A. L.
Gaeta
, “
Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires
,”
Opt. Express
16
,
1300
(
2008
).
20.
P.
Rabiei
,
W.
Steier
,
C.
Zhang
, and
L.
Dalton
, “
Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators
,”
J. Lightwave Technol.
20
,
1968
1975
(
2002
).
21.
I. D.
Rukhlenko
,
M.
Premaratne
, and
G. P.
Agrawal
, “
Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides
,”
Opt. Lett.
37
,
2295
2297
(
2012
).
22.
K.
Karch
,
P.
Pavone
,
W.
Windl
,
O.
Schütt
, and
D.
Strauch
, “
Ab initio
,”
Phys. Rev. B
50
,
17054
17063
(
1994
).
23.
R.
Anzalone
,
G.
D'arrigo
,
M.
Camarda
,
C.
Locke
,
S.
Saddow
, and
F.
La Via
, “
Advanced residual stress analysis and fem simulation on heteroepitaxial 3C–SiC for mems application
,”
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
20
,
745
752
(
2011
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.