We investigate temperature-dependent spectral linewidths of Bloch oscillations in biased semiconductor superlattices experimentally and theoretically. The spectral linewidth in a GaAs-based superlattice determined by terahertz emission spectroscopy becomes larger gradually as temperature increases from 80 to 320 K. This behavior can be quantitatively reproduced by a microscopic theory of the spectral linewidth that has been extended to treat the phonon scattering and interface roughness scattering of electrons on a Wannier-Stark ladder. A detailed comparison between the terahertz measurements and theoretical simulations reveals that the LO phonon absorption process governs the increase in the spectral linewidth with increasing temperature.

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