For rating unambiguous performance of a light-emitting semiconductor material, determination of the absolute quantum efficiency (AQE) of radiation, which is basically a product of internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and light-extraction efficiency, is the most delightful way. Here, we propose the use of omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy for quantifying AQE of the near-band-edge (NBE) emission, in order to evaluate bulk GaN crystals and wafers. When the measurement was carried out in the air, the AQE showed a continuous decrease most likely due to the formation of extrinsic nonradiative recombination channels at the surface by photo-pumping. However, such an influence was suppressed by measuring ODPL in an inert ambient such as nitrogen or in vacuum. Consequently, AQE was revealed to depend on the photo-pumping density. The increase in AQE of the NBE emission caused by the increase in the excess carrier concentration was significant, indicating gradual saturation of nonradiative recombination centers in the bulk of GaN. The highest AQE value (8.22%) ever reported for the NBE emission of GaN at room temperature, which corresponds to IQE of 70.9%, was eventually obtained from the GaN wafer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a GaN seed crystal manufactured by the acidic ammonothermal method, when the cw photo-pumping density was 66 W/cm2.
Demonstration of omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy for precise determination of internal quantum efficiency of radiation in GaN single crystals
Kazunobu Kojima, Hirotaka Ikeda, Kenji Fujito, Shigefusa F. Chichibu; Demonstration of omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy for precise determination of internal quantum efficiency of radiation in GaN single crystals. Appl. Phys. Lett. 17 July 2017; 111 (3): 032111. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4995398
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