An experimental method was developed to set the magnetization direction in ferromagnetic layers of Si(100)/Cu/NiFe/Cu/Co/IrMn/Cu morphologically modified spin valves. Large uniaxial anisotropies emerged in the NiFe and Co layers due to modifications of their morphologies induced by the shadowing effect that arises from oblique depositions. Therefore, we set the uniaxial anisotropy axes in pre-set directions by controlling the sputtered beam direction relative to the sample reference. We were able to tune the angle between the magnetization directions of the NiFe and Co layers in a continuous interval from 0° to 90° due to the interplay between the Co and NiFe uniaxial anisotropies and the unidirectional anisotropy at the Co/IrMn interface. This type of non-collinear coupling cannot be found in conventional spin valve devices with passive spacers through which the coupling is governed by bilinear and biquadratic couplings. The methodology of preparation proposed here allows an extra control over the magnetism of the spin valves, which can be promising for technological applications.

1.
B.
Dieny
,
V. S.
Speriosu
,
S.
Metin
,
S. S. P.
Parkin
,
B. A.
Gurney
,
P.
Baumgart
, and
D. R.
Wilhoit
,
J. Appl. Phys.
69
,
4774
(
1991
).
2.
M. N.
Baibich
,
J. M.
Broto
,
A.
Fert
,
F.
Nguyen Van Dau
,
F.
Petroff
,
P.
Etienne
,
G.
Creuzet
,
A.
Friederich
, and
J.
Chazelas
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
61
,
2472
(
1988
).
3.
S. S. P.
Parkin
,
N.
More
, and
K. P.
Roche
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
64
,
2304
(
1990
).
4.
W. H.
Meiklejohn
and
C. P.
Bean
, “
New magnetic anisotropy
,”
Phys. Rev.
102
,
1413
(
1956
).
5.
A. E.
Berkowitz
and
K.
Takano
, “
Exchange anisotropy-a review
,”
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
200
,
552
(
1999
).
6.
P.
Bruno
and
C.
Chappert
,
Phys. Rev. B
46
,
261
(
1992
).
7.
M. T.
Johnson
,
R.
Coehoorn
,
J. J.
de Vries
,
N. W. E.
McGee
,
J.
aan de Stegge
, and
P. J. H.
Bloemen
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
69
,
969
(
1992
).
8.
L.
Néel
,
C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci.
255
,
1676
(
1962
).
9.
B.
Heinrich
,
Z.
Celinski
,
J. F.
Cochran
,
A. S.
Arrott
,
K.
Myrtle
, and
S. T.
Purcell
,
Phys. Rev. B
47
,
5077
(
1993
).
10.
Y. P.
Fang
,
W.
He
,
H. L.
Liu
,
Q. F.
Zhan
,
H. F.
Du
,
Q.
Wu
,
H. T.
Yang
,
X. Q.
Zhang
, and
Z. H.
Cheng
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
97
,
022507
(
2010
).
11.
G.
Wang
,
C.
Dong
,
W.
Wang
,
Z.
Wang
,
G.
Chai
,
C.
Jiang
, and
D.
Xue
,
J. Appl. Phys.
112
,
093907
(
2012
).
12.
T. E. P.
Bueno
,
D. E.
Parreiras
,
G. F. M.
Gomes
,
S.
Michea
,
R. L.
Rodríguez-Suarez
,
M. S.
Araujo Filho
,
W. A. A.
Macedo
,
K.
Krambrock
, and
R.
Paniago
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
104
,
242404
(
2014
).
13.
T. P.
Bertelli
,
T. E. P.
Bueno
,
A. C.
Krohling
,
B. C.
Silva
,
R. L.
Rodríguez-Suárez
,
V. P.
Nascimento
,
K.
Krambrock
,
C.
Larica
, and
E. C.
Passamani
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
426
,
636
(
2017
).
14.
M.
Elzo
,
E.
Jal
,
O.
Bunau
,
S.
Grenier
,
Y.
Joly
,
A. Y.
Ramos
,
H. C. N.
Tolentino
,
J. M.
Tonnerre
, and
N.
Jaouen
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
324
,
105
(
2012
).
15.
D. M.
Kelly
,
E. E.
Fullerton
,
J.
Santa-Maria
, and
I. K.
Schuller
,
Scr. Metall. Mater.
33
,
1603
(
1995
).
16.
V. P.
Nascimento
,
E. C.
Passamani
,
A.
Biondo
,
V. B.
Nunes
, and
E.
Baggio Saitovitch
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
253
,
6248
(
2007
).
17.
I. L. C.
Merino
,
L. C.
Figueiredo
,
E. C.
Passamani
,
V. P.
Nascimento
,
F.
Pelegrini
, and
E.
Baggio-Saitovitch
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
432
,
494
(
2017
).
18.
F.
Offi
,
W.
Kuch
,
L. I.
Chelaru
,
M.
Kotsugi
, and
J.
Kirschner
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
261
,
1
(
2003
).
19.
J.
McCord
,
C.
Hamann
,
R.
Schäfer
, and
L.
Schultz
,
Phys. Rev. B
78
,
094419
(
2008
).
20.
E.
Jiménez
,
J.
Camarero
,
J.
Sort
,
J.
Nogués
,
N.
Mikuszeit
,
J. M.
García-Martín
,
A.
Hoffmann
,
B.
Dieny
, and
R.
Miranda
,
Phys. Rev. B
80
,
014415
(
2009
).
21.
22.
B.
Heinrich
and
J. A. C.
Bland
,
Ultrathin Magnetic Structures I
, edited by
B.
Heinrich
and
J. A. C.
Bland
(
Springer
,
Berlin Heidelberg
,
1994
).
23.
I.
Barsukov
,
P.
Landeros
,
R.
Meckenstock
,
J.
Lindner
,
D.
Spoddig
,
Z. A.
Li
,
B.
Krumme
,
H.
Wende
, and
D. L.
Mills
,
Phys. Rev. B
85
,
014420
(
2012
).
24.
K. H. J.
Buschow
,
Handbook of Magnetic Materials
(
Elsevier
,
2003
), Vol.
15
, p.
145
.
You do not currently have access to this content.