We report the development of thin single crystal diamond membranes suitable for dose control in targeted cell irradiation experiments with a proton microbeam. A specific design was achieved to deliver single protons with a hit detection efficiency approaching 100%. The membranes have thicknesses between 1.8 and 3 μm and are used as vacuum windows on the microbeam line. The impact of these transmission detectors on the microbeam spot size is estimated by Monte-Carlo simulations, indicating that a beam lateral resolution below 2 μm is achieved. This is confirmed by experiments showing the accumulation online of X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1)-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) at DNA damaged sites in living cells.

1.
P.
Barberet
and
H.
Seznec
,
Radiat. Prot. Dosim.
166
,
182
(
2015
).
2.
G. A.
Drexler
and
M. J.
Ruiz-Gómez
,
J. Biosci.
40
,
629
(
2015
).
3.
B.
Jakob
,
J.
Splinter
,
S.
Conrad
,
K.-O.
Voss
,
D.
Zink
,
M.
Durante
,
M.
Löbrich
, and
G.
Taucher-Scholz
,
Nucl. Acids Res.
39
,
6489
(
2011
).
4.
V.
Hable
,
G. A.
Drexler
,
T.
Brüning
,
C.
Burgdorf
,
C.
Greubel
,
A.
Derer
,
J.
Seel
,
H.
Strickfaden
,
T.
Cremer
,
A. A.
Friedl
, and
G.
Dollinger
,
PLoS One
7
,
e41943
(
2012
).
5.
D. W. M.
Walsh
,
C.
Siebenwirth
,
C.
Greubel
,
K.
Ilicic
,
J.
Reindl
,
S.
Girst
,
G.
Muggiolu
,
M.
Simon
,
P.
Barberet
,
H.
Seznec
,
H.
Zischka
,
G.
Multhoff
,
T. E.
Schmid
, and
G.
Dollinger
,
Sci. Rep.
7
,
46684
(
2017
).
6.
B. E.
Fischer
,
M.
Heiß
, and
M.
Cholewa
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B
210
,
285
(
2003
).
7.
G.
Muggiolu
,
M.
Pomorski
,
G.
Claverie
,
G.
Berthet
,
C.
Mer-Calfati
,
S.
Saada
,
G.
Devès
,
M.
Simon
,
H.
Seznec
, and
P.
Barberet
,
Sci. Rep.
7
,
41764
(
2017
).
8.
M.
Folkard
,
B.
Vojnovic
,
K. M.
Prise
,
A. G.
Bowey
,
R. J.
Locke
,
G.
Schettino
, and
B. D.
Michael
,
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
72
,
375
(
1997
).
9.
K.-D.
Greif
,
H. J.
Brede
,
D.
Frankenberg
, and
U.
Giesen
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B
217
,
505
(
2004
).
10.
S.
Bourret
,
F.
Vianna
,
G.
Devès
,
V.
Atallah
,
P.
Moretto
,
H.
Seznec
, and
P.
Barberet
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B
325
,
27
(
2014
).
11.
M.
Grad
,
A.
Harken
,
G.
Randers-Pehrson
,
D.
Attinger
, and
D. J.
Brenner
,
J. Instrum.
7
,
P12001
(
2012
).
12.
C.
Nilsson
,
J.
Pallon
,
G.
Thungström
,
N.
Arteaga
,
V.
Auzelyte
,
M.
Elfman
,
P.
Kristiansson
,
C.
Nilsson
, and
M.
Wedgén
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B
249
,
924
(
2006
).
13.
V.
Grilj
,
N.
Skukan
,
M.
Pomorski
,
W.
Kada
,
N.
Iwamoto
,
T.
Kamiya
,
T.
Ohshima
, and
M.
Jakŝić
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
,
243106
(
2013
).
14.
See http://e6cvd.com/us/application.html for information about single crystal diamonds.
15.
See https://www.almax-easylab.com/ for information about thin slices production and polishing.
16.
M.
Pomorski
,
B.
Caylar
, and
P.
Bergonzo
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
,
112106
(
2013
).
17.
J.
Allison
,
K.
Amako
,
J.
Apostolakis
,
H.
Araujo
,
P.
Arce Dubois
,
M.
Asai
,
G.
Barrand
,
R.
Capra
,
S.
Chauvie
,
R.
Chytracek
 et al,
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
53
,
270
(
2006
).
18.
L.
Lan
,
S.
Nakajima
,
Y.
Oohata
,
M.
Takao
,
S.
Okano
,
M.
Masutani
,
S. H.
Wilson
, and
A.
Yasui
,
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
101
,
13738
(
2004
).
19.
A.
Campalans
,
T.
Kortulewski
,
R.
Amouroux
,
H.
Menoni
,
W.
Vermeulen
, and
J. P.
Radicella
,
Nucl. Acids Res.
41
,
3115
(
2013
).
You do not currently have access to this content.