Printed electronic components offer certain technological advantages over their silicon based counterparts, like mechanical flexibility, low process temperatures, maskless and additive manufacturing possibilities. However, to be compatible to the fields of smart sensors, Internet of Things, and wearables, it is essential that devices operate at small supply voltages. In printed electronics, mostly silicon dioxide or organic dielectrics with low dielectric constants have been used as gate isolators, which in turn have resulted in high power transistors operable only at tens of volts. Here, we present inkjet printed circuits which are able to operate at supply voltages as low as ≤2 V. Our transistor technology is based on lithographically patterned drive electrodes, the dimensions of which are carefully kept well within the printing resolutions; the oxide semiconductor, the electrolytic insulator and the top-gate electrodes have been inkjet printed. Our inverters show a gain of ∼4 and 2.3 ms propagation delay time at 1 V supply voltage. Subsequently built 3-stage ring oscillators start to oscillate at a supply voltage of only 0.6 V with a frequency of ∼255 Hz and can reach frequencies up to ∼350 Hz at 2 V supply voltage. Furthermore, we have introduced a systematic methodology for characterizing ring oscillators in the printed electronics domain, which has been largely missing. Benefiting from this procedure, we are now able to predict the switching capacitance and driver capability at each stage, as well as the power consumption of our inkjet printed ring oscillators. These achievements will be essential for analyzing the performance and power characteristics of future inkjet printed digital circuits.
Digital power and performance analysis of inkjet printed ring oscillators based on electrolyte-gated oxide electronics
Present address: School of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.
Present address: Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.
Gabriel Cadilha Marques, Suresh Kumar Garlapati, Simone Dehm, Subho Dasgupta, Horst Hahn, Mehdi Tahoori, Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann; Digital power and performance analysis of inkjet printed ring oscillators based on electrolyte-gated oxide electronics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 4 September 2017; 111 (10): 102103. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4991919
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