We have observed the lattice expansion before the onset of compression in an optical-laser-driven target, using diffraction of femtosecond X-ray beams generated by the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-electron Laser. The change in diffraction angle provides a direct measure of the lattice spacing, allowing the density to be calculated with a precision of ±1%. From the known equation of state relations, this allows an estimation of the temperature responsible for the expansion as <1000 K. The subsequent ablation-driven compression was observed with a clear rise in density at later times. This demonstrates the feasibility of studying the dynamics of preheating and shock formation with unprecedented detail.
Ultrafast observation of lattice dynamics in laser-irradiated gold foils
N. J. Hartley, N. Ozaki, T. Matsuoka, B. Albertazzi, A. Faenov, Y. Fujimoto, H. Habara, M. Harmand, Y. Inubushi, T. Katayama, M. Koenig, A. Krygier, P. Mabey, Y. Matsumura, S. Matsuyama, E. E. McBride, K. Miyanishi, G. Morard, T. Okuchi, T. Pikuz, O. Sakata, Y. Sano, T. Sato, T. Sekine, Y. Seto, K. Takahashi, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Tange, T. Togashi, Y. Umeda, T. Vinci, M. Yabashi, T. Yabuuchi, K. Yamauchi, R. Kodama; Ultrafast observation of lattice dynamics in laser-irradiated gold foils. Appl. Phys. Lett. 13 February 2017; 110 (7): 071905. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4976541
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