Operando magnetic susceptibility measurements on the LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material during repetitive electrochemical cycling were performed, enabling a continuous and bulk sensitive monitoring of the charge compensation process. Upon charging and Li extraction down to the Li contents of x = 1/3, exclusively Ni undergoes oxidation in two consecutive steps, namely, Ni2+Ni3+ for x > 2/3 and Ni3+Ni4+ for 2/3 > x > 1/3 with a continuous transition in between. In the regime of low Li concentrations x < 1∕3, both Co- and O-ions contribute to the charge compensation. While the oxidation of Ni and O during charging is reversible, the Co oxidation is found to be irreversible.

You do not currently have access to this content.