The realization of conducting nanostructures at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 is an important step towards the realization of devices and the investigation of exotic physical regimes. We present here a detailed study of the conducting nanowires realized using the atomic force microscopy writing technique. By comparing experiments with numerical simulations, we show that these wires reproduce the ideal case of nanoconducting channels defined in an insulating background very well and that the tip bias is a powerful knob to modulate the size of these structures. We also discuss the role of the air humidity that is found to be a crucial parameter to set the size of the tip-sample effective interaction area.

1.
A.
Ohtomo
and
H. Y.
Hwang
, “
A high-mobility electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface
,”
Nature
427
(
6973
),
423
426
(
2004
).
2.
P.
Zubko
,
S.
Gariglio
,
M.
Gabay
,
P.
Ghosez
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
, “
Interface physics in complex oxide heterostructures
,”
Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys.
2
(
1
),
141
165
(
2011
).
3.
H. Y.
Hwang
,
Y.
Iwasa
,
M.
Kawasaki
,
B.
Keimer
,
N.
Nagaosa
, and
Y.
Tokura
, “
Emergent phenomena at oxide interfaces
,”
Nat. Mater.
11
(
2
),
103
113
(
2012
).
4.
A. D.
Caviglia
,
M.
Gabay
,
S.
Gariglio
,
N.
Reyren
,
C.
Cancellieri
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
, “
Tunable rashba spin-orbit interaction at oxide interfaces
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
104
(
12
),
126803
(
2010
).
5.
M.
Ben Shalom
,
M.
Sachs
,
D.
Rakhmilevitch
,
A.
Palevski
, and
Y.
Dagan
, “
Tuning spin-orbit coupling and superconductivity at the SrTiO3/LaAlO3 interface: A magnetotransport study
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
104
(
12
),
126802
(
2010
).
6.
A.
Fete
,
S.
Gariglio
,
A. D.
Caviglia
,
J.-M.
Triscone
, and
M.
Gabay
, “
Rashba induced magnetoconductance oscillations in the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 heterostructure
,”
Phys. Rev. B
86
(
20
),
201105
(
2012
).
7.
N.
Reyren
,
S.
Thiel
,
A. D.
Caviglia
,
L.
Fitting Kourkoutis
,
G.
Hammerl
,
C.
Richter
,
C. W.
Schneider
,
T.
Kopp
,
A.-S.
Ruetschi
,
D.
Jaccard
,
M.
Gabay
,
D. A.
Muller
,
J.-M.
Triscone
, and
J.
Mannhart
, “
Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides
,”
Science
317
(
5842
),
1196
1199
(
2007
).
8.
S.
Thiel
,
G.
Hammerl
,
A.
Schmehl
,
C. W.
Schneider
, and
J.
Mannhart
, “
Tunable quasi-two-dimensional electron gases in oxide heterostructures
,”
Science
313
(
5795
),
1942
1945
(
2006
).
9.
A. D.
Caviglia
,
S.
Gariglio
,
N.
Reyren
,
D.
Jaccard
,
T.
Schneider
,
M.
Gabay
,
S.
Thiel
,
G.
Hammerl
,
J.
Mannhart
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
, “
Electric field control of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface ground state
,”
Nature
456
(
7222
),
624
627
(
2008
).
10.
R. M.
Lutchyn
,
J. D.
Sau
, and
S.
Das Sarma
, “
Majorana fermions and a topological phase transition in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
105
(
7
),
077001
(
2010
).
11.
Y.
Oreg
,
G.
Refael
, and
F.
von Oppen
, “
Helical liquids and majorana bound states in quantum wires
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
105
(
17
),
177002
(
2010
).
12.
D.
Stornaiuolo
,
S.
Gariglio
,
N. J. G.
Couto
,
A.
Fete
,
A. D.
Caviglia
,
G.
Seyfarth
,
D.
Jaccard
,
A. F.
Morpurgo
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
, “
In-plane electronic confinement in superconducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
(
22
),
222601
(
2012
).
13.
J.-W.
Chang
,
J.
Song
,
J. S.
Lee
,
H.
Noh
,
S. K.
Seung
,
L.
Baasandorj
,
S. G.
Lee
,
Y.-J.
Doh
, and
J.
Kim
, “
Quantum electrical transport in mesoscopic LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures
,”
Appl. Phys. Express
6
(
8
),
085201
(
2013
).
14.
P. P.
Aurino
,
A.
Kalabukhov
,
N.
Tuzla
,
E.
Olsson
,
T.
Claeson
, and
D.
Winkler
, “
Nano-patterning of the electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using low-energy ion beam irradiation
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
102
(
20
),
201610
(
2013
).
15.
S.
Goswami
,
E.
Mulazimoglu
,
L. M. K.
Vandersypen
, and
A. D.
Caviglia
, “
Nanoscale electrostatic control of oxide interfaces
,”
Nano Lett.
15
(
4
),
2627
2632
(
2015
).
16.
A.
Ron
and
Y.
Dagan
, “
One-dimensional quantum wire formed at the boundary between two insulating LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
112
(
13
),
136801
(
2014
).
17.
C.
Cen
,
S.
Thiel
,
G.
Hammerl
,
C. W.
Schneider
,
K. E.
Andersen
,
C. S.
Hellberg
,
J.
Mannhart
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Nanoscale control of an interfacial metal-insulator transition at room temperature
,”
Nat. Mater.
7
(
4
),
298
302
(
2008
).
18.
C.
Cen
,
S.
Thiel
,
J.
Mannhart
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Oxide nanoelectronics on demand
,”
Science
323
(
5917
),
1026
1030
(
2009
).
19.
J. P.
Veazey
,
G.
Cheng
,
P.
Irvin
,
C.
Cen
,
D. F.
Bogorin
,
F.
Bi
,
M.
Huang
,
C.-W.
Bark
,
S.
Ryu
,
K.-H.
Cho
,
C.-B.
Eom
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Oxide-based platform for reconfigurable superconducting nanoelectronics
,”
Nanotechnology
24
(
37
),
375201
(
2013
).
20.
D. F.
Bogorin
,
C. W.
Bark
,
H. W.
Jang
,
C.
Cen
,
C. M.
Folkman
,
C.-B.
Eom
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Nanoscale rectification at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
97
(
1
),
013102
(
2010
).
21.
G.
Cheng
,
P. F.
Siles
,
F.
Bi
,
C.
Cen
,
D. F.
Bogorin
,
C. W.
Bark
,
C. M.
Folkman
,
J.-W.
Park
,
C.-B.
Eom
,
G.
Medeiros-Ribeiro
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Sketched oxide single-electron transistor
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
6
(
6
),
343
347
(
2011
).
22.
Y.
Xie
,
C.
Bell
,
T.
Yajima
,
Y.
Hikita
, and
H. Y.
Hwang
, “
Charge writing at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 surface
,”
Nano Lett.
10
(
7
),
2588
2591
(
2010
).
23.
G.
Cheng
,
M.
Tomczyk
,
S.
Lu
,
J. P.
Veazey
,
M.
Huang
,
P.
Irvin
,
S.
Ryu
,
H.
Lee
,
C.-B.
Eom
,
C. S.
Hellberg
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Electron pairing without superconductivity
,”
Nature
521
(
7551
),
196
199
(
2015
).
24.
F.
Bi
,
D. F.
Bogorin
,
C.
Cen
,
C. W.
Bark
,
J.-W.
Park
,
C.-B.
Eom
, and
J.
Levy
, “
Water-cycle mechanism for writing and erasing nanostructures at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
97
(
17
),
173110
(
2010
).
25.
Kolibrisensor
, “
Advanced quartz sensor technology for NC-AFM
,” (SPECS Surface Nano Analysis GmbH,
2015
).
26.
C.
Cancellieri
,
N.
Reyren
,
S.
Gariglio
,
A. D.
Caviglia
,
A.
Fete
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
, “
Influence of the growth conditions on the LaAIO3/SrTiO3 interface electronic properties
,”
Europhys. Lett.
91
(
1
),
17004
(
2010
).
27.
E.
Lesne
,
N.
Reyren
,
D.
Doennig
,
R.
Mattana
,
H.
Jaffres
,
V.
Cros
,
F.
Petroff
,
F.
Choueikani
,
P.
Ohresser
,
R.
Pentcheva
,
A.
Barthelemy
, and
M.
Bibes
, “
Suppression of the critical thickness threshold for conductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
,”
Nat. Commun.
5
,
4291
(
2014
).
28.
Y.
Xie
,
Y.
Hikita
,
C.
Bell
, and
H. Y.
Hwang
, “
Control of electronic conduction at an oxide heterointerface using surface polar adsorbates
,”
Nat. Commun.
2
,
494
(
2011
).
29.
R. J.
Hunter
,
Foundations of Colloid Science
, 2nd ed. (
Oxford University Press
,
2001
).
30.
H.-J.
Butt
and
M.
Kappl
, “
Normal capillary force
,”
Adv. Colloid Interfac.
146
(
1–2
),
48
60
(
2009
).
31.
C.
Blaser
and
P.
Paruch
, “
Subcritical switching dynamics and humidity effects in nanoscale studies of domain growth in ferroelectric thin films
,”
New J. Phys.
17
(
1
),
013002
(
2015
).
32.
P.
Maksymovych
,
S.
Jesse
,
P.
Yu
,
R.
Ramesh
,
A. P.
Baddorf
, and
S. V.
Kalinin
, “
Polarization control of electron tunneling into ferroelectric surfaces
,”
Science
324
(
5933
),
1421
1425
(
2009
).
33.

After the contacts deposition process, the total resistance between the electrodes is ∼10 MΩ.

34.

As reported before, the tip-sample distance is 1.5 nm, the oscillation amplitude is 0.3 nm and the tip radius is 110 nm.

35.

For this analysis, the writing is performed using a MFP-3D Infinity AFM from Asylum Research-Oxford Instruments equipped with a standard cantilever. The tip bias during the cut was set at Vb = −0.5 V.

You do not currently have access to this content.