Tungsten trioxide is a binary oxide that has potential applications in electrochromic windows, gas sensors, photo-catalysts, and superconductivity. Here, we analyze the crystal structure of atomically flat epitaxial layers on YAlO3 single crystal substrates and perform nanoscale investigations of the ferroelastic twins revealing a hierarchical structure at multiple length scales. We have found that the finest stripe ferroelastic twin walls along pseudocubic 〈100〉 axes are associated with cooperative mosaic rotations of the monoclinic films and the larger stripe domains along pseudocubic 〈110〉 axes are created to reduce the misfit strain through a commensurate matching of an effective in-plane lattice parameter between film and substrate. The typical widths of the two fine and larger stripe domains increase with film thickness following a power law with scaling exponents of ∼0.6 and ∼0.4, respectively. We have also found that the twin structure can be readily influenced by illumination with an electron beam or a tip-based mechanical compression.

1.
A.
Saxena
and
A.
Planes
,
Mesoscopic Phenomena in Multifunctional Materials
(
Springer
,
Berlin
,
2014
), Chap. 8.
2.
G.
Catalan
,
J.
Seidel
,
R.
Ramesh
, and
J. F.
Scott
,
Rev. Mod. Phys.
84
,
119
(
2012
).
3.
S. Y.
Yang
,
J.
Seidel
,
S. J.
Byrness
,
P.
Shafer
,
C.-H.
Yang
,
M. D.
Rossell
,
P.
Yu
,
Y.-H.
Chu
,
J. F.
Scott
,
J. W.
Ager
 III
,
L. W.
Martin
, and
R.
Ramesh
,
Nat. Nanotechnol.
5
,
143
(
2010
).
4.
S.
Conti
,
S.
Muller
,
A.
Poliakovsky
, and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
23
,
142203
(
2011
).
5.
T.
Lottermoser
and
M.
Fiebig
,
Phys. Rev. B
70
,
220407
(
2004
).
6.
K.-E.
Kim
,
B.-K.
Jang
,
Y.
Heo
,
J. H.
Lee
,
M.
Jeong
,
J. Y.
Lee
,
J.
Seidel
, and
C.-H.
Yang
,
NPG Asia Mater.
6
,
e81
(
2014
).
7.
Y.
Gu
,
M.
Li
,
A. N.
Morozovska
,
Y.
Wang
,
E. A.
Eliseev
,
V.
Gopalan
, and
L.-Q.
Chen
,
Phys. Rev. B
89
,
174111
(
2014
).
8.
D.
Lee
and
T. W.
Noh
,
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A
370
,
4944
(
2012
).
9.
K.
Chu
,
B.-K.
Jang
,
J. H.
Sung
,
Y. A.
Shin
,
E.-S.
Lee
,
K.
Song
,
J. H.
Lee
,
C.-S.
Woo
,
S. J.
Kim
,
S.-Y.
Choi
,
T. Y.
Koo
,
Y.-H.
Kim
,
S.-H.
Oh
,
M.-H.
Jo
, and
C.-H.
Yang
,
Nat. Nanotechnol.
10
,
972
(
2015
).
10.
G.
Catalan
,
A.
Lubk
,
A. H. G.
Vlooswijk
,
E.
Snoeck
,
C.
Magen
,
A.
Janssens
,
G.
Rispens
,
G.
Rijnders
,
D. H. A.
Blank
, and
B.
Noheda
,
Nat. Mater.
10
,
963
(
2011
).
11.
J.
Seidel
,
L. W.
Martin
,
Q.
He
,
Q.
Zhan
,
Y.-H.
Chu
,
A.
Rother
,
M. E.
Hawkridge
,
P.
Maksymovych
,
P.
Yu
,
M.
Gajek
,
N.
Balke
,
S. V.
Kalinin
,
S.
Gemming
,
F.
Wang
,
G.
Catalan
,
J. F.
Scott
,
N. A.
Spaldin
,
J.
Orenstein
, and
R.
Ramesh
,
Nat. Mater.
8
,
229
(
2009
).
12.
W.
Wu
,
Y.
Horibe
,
N.
Lee
,
S.-W.
Cheong
, and
J. R.
Guest
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
108
,
077203
(
2012
).
13.
S.
Farokhipoor
and
B.
Noheda
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
107
,
127601
(
2011
).
14.
Y.
Kim
,
M.
Alexe
, and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
032904
(
2010
).
15.
A.
Aird
and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
10
,
L377
(
1998
).
16.
A.
Aird
and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
Eur. Phys. J. B
15
,
205
(
2000
).
17.
M.
Calleja
,
M. T.
Dove
, and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
13
,
9445
(
2001
).
18.
R.
Brusetti
,
P.
Haen
, and
J.
Marcus
,
Phys. Rev. B
65
,
144528
(
2002
).
19.
S.
Reich
,
G.
Leitus
,
R.
Popovitz-Biro
,
A.
Boldbourt
, and
S.
Vega
,
J. Supercond. Nov. Magn.
22
,
343
(
2009
).
20.
P. M.
Wu
,
C.
Hart
,
K.
Luna
,
K.
Munakata
,
A.
Tsukada
,
S. H.
Risbud
,
T. H.
Geballe
, and
M. R.
Beasley
,
Phys. Rev. B
89
,
184501
(
2014
).
21.
Y.
Levi
,
O.
Millo
,
A.
Sharoni
,
Y.
Tsabba
,
G.
Leitus
, and
S.
Reich
,
Europhys. Lett.
51
,
564
(
2000
).
22.
Z.
Barkay
,
E.
Grunbaum
,
G.
Leitus
, and
S.
Reich
,
J. Supercond. Nov. Magn.
21
,
145
(
2008
).
23.
R. S.
Crandall
and
B. W.
Faughnan
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
28
,
95
(
1976
).
24.
B. W.
Faughnan
and
R. S.
Crandall
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
31
,
834
(
1977
).
25.
C. G.
Granqvist
,
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
60
,
201
(
2000
).
26.
M.
Penza
,
M. A.
Tagliente
,
L.
Mirenghi
,
C.
Gerardi
,
C.
Martucci
, and
G.
Cassano
,
Sens. Actuators, B
50
,
9
(
1998
).
27.
X. L.
Li
,
T. J.
Lou
,
X. M.
Sun
, and
Y. D.
Li
,
Inorg. Chem.
43
,
5442
(
2004
).
28.
X.
Leng
,
J.
Pereiro
,
J.
Strle
,
A. T.
Bollinger
, and
I.
Bozovic
,
APL Mater.
3
,
096102
(
2015
).
29.
P.
Tagtstrom
and
U.
Jansson
,
Thin Solid Films
352
,
107
(
1999
).
30.
S. C.
Moulzolf
,
L. J.
LeGore
, and
R. J.
Lad
,
Thin Solid Films
400
,
56
(
2001
).
31.
A.
Garg
,
J. A.
Leake
, and
Z. H.
Barber
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
33
,
1048
(
2000
).
32.
See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4938396 for the materials synthesis and experimental methods including the process of finding macro-domain and fine-domain widths.
33.
P. M.
Woodward
,
A. W.
Sleight
, and
T.
Vogt
,
J. Solid State Chem.
131
,
9
(
1997
).
34.
K. R.
Locherer
,
I. P.
Swainson
, and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
11
,
6737
(
1999
).
35.
S. I.
Hamazaki
,
N.
Tashiro
,
Y.
Fukurai
,
F.
Shimizu
,
M.
Takashige
, and
S.
Kojima
,
Ferroelectrics
219
,
183
(
1998
).
36.
R.
Diehl
,
G.
Brandt
, and
E.
Salje
,
Acta Cryst. B
34
,
1105
(
1978
).
37.
C.-S.
Woo
,
J. H.
Lee
,
K.
Chu
,
B.-K.
Jang
,
Y. B.
Kim
,
T. Y.
Koo
,
P.
Yang
,
Y.
Qi
,
Z.
Chen
,
L.
Chen
,
H. C.
Choi
,
J. H.
Shim
, and
C.-H.
Yang
,
Phys. Rev. B
86
,
054417
(
2012
).
38.
A.
Aird
,
M. C.
Domeneghetti
,
F.
Mazzi
,
V.
Tazzoli
, and
E. K. H.
Salje
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
10
,
L569
(
1998
).
39.
40.
G.
Catalan
,
H.
Béa
,
S.
Fusil
,
M.
Bibes
,
P.
Paruch
,
A.
Barthélémy
, and
J. F.
Scott
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
100
,
027602
(
2008
).
41.
P.
Paruch
,
T.
Giamarchi
, and
J.-M.
Triscone
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
94
,
197601
(
2005
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.