Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0–50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of −30 μm; at voltages of 50–1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.