In this work, we report on correlations between surface density variations and ion parameters during ion beam-induced surface patterning process. The near-surface density variations of irradiated Si(100) surfaces were investigated after off-normal irradiation with 5 keV Fe ions at different fluences. In order to reduce the x-ray probing depth to a thickness below 5 nm, the extremely asymmetrical x-ray diffraction by variation of wavelength was applied, exploiting x-ray refraction at the air-sample interface. Depth profiling was achieved by measuring x-ray rocking curves as function of varying wavelengths providing incidence angles down to 0°. The density variation was extracted from the deviations from kinematical Bragg angle at grazing incidence angles due to refraction of the x-ray beam at the air-sample interface. The simulations based on the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction revealed that while a net near-surface density decreases with increasing ion fluence which is accompanied by surface patterning, there is a certain threshold of ion fluence to surface density modulation. Our finding suggests that the surface density variation can be relevant with the mechanism of pattern formation.
Near-surface density profiling of Fe ion irradiated Si (100) using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction by variation of the wavelength
B. Khanbabaee, S. Facsko, S. Doyle, U. Pietsch; Near-surface density profiling of Fe ion irradiated Si (100) using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction by variation of the wavelength. Appl. Phys. Lett. 20 October 2014; 105 (16): 163101. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4899068
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