Time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments were performed with time scales from picoseconds to nanoseconds to trace relaxation of surface photovoltage on the ZnO(0001) single crystal surface in real time. The band diagram of the surface has been obtained numerically using PES data, showing a depletion layer which extends to 1 μm. Temporal evolution of the photovoltage effect is well explained by a recombination process of a thermionic model, giving the photoexcited carrier lifetime of about 1 ps at the surface under the flat band condition. This lifetime agrees with a temporal range reported by the previous time-resolved optical experiments.
Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, Sh. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, I. Matsuda; Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 13 October 2014; 105 (15): 151602. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897934
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