We demonstrate magnetization switching in out-of-plane magnetized Ta\CoFeB\MgO nanowires by current pulse injection along the nanowires, both with and without a constant and uniform magnetic field collinear to the current direction. We deduce that an effective torque arising from spin-orbit effects in the multilayer drives the switching mechanism. While the generation of a component of the magnetization along the current direction is crucial for the switching to occur, we observe that even without a longitudinal field thermally generated magnetization fluctuations can lead to switching. Analysis using a generalized Néel-Brown model enables key parameters of the thermally induced spin-orbit torques-driven switching process to be estimated, such as the attempt frequency and the effective energy barrier.

1.
S. S. P.
Parkin
,
M.
Hayashi
, and
L.
Thomas
,
Science
320
,
190
(
2008
).
2.
S.
Ikeda
,
J.
Hayakawa
,
Y. M.
Lee
,
F.
Matsukura
,
Y.
Ohno
,
T.
Hanyu
, and
H.
Ohno
,
IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
54
(
5
),
991
1002
(
2007
).
3.
T. A.
Moore
,
I. M.
Miron
,
G.
Gaudin
,
G.
Serret
,
S.
Auffret
,
B.
Rodmacq
,
A.
Schuhl
,
S.
Pizzini
,
J.
Vogel
, and
M.
Bonfim
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
93
,
262504
(
2008
).
4.
I. M.
Miron
,
G.
Gaudin
,
S.
Auffret
,
B.
Rodmacq
,
A.
Schuhl
,
S.
Pizzini
,
J.
Vogel
, and
P.
Gambardella
,
Nat. Mater.
9
,
230
234
(
2010
).
5.
I. M.
Miron
,
T.
Moore
,
H.
Szambolics
,
L. D.
Buda-Prejbeanu
,
S.
Auffret
,
B.
Rodmacq
,
S.
Pizzini
,
J.
Vogel
,
M.
Bonfim
,
A.
Schuhl
, and
G.
Gaudin
,
Nat. Mater.
10
,
419
423
(
2011
).
6.
I. M.
Miron
,
K.
Garello
,
G.
Gaudin
,
P. J.
Zermatten
,
M. V.
Costache
,
S.
Auffret
,
S.
Bandiera
,
B.
Rodmacq
,
A.
Schuhl
, and
P.
Gambardella
,
Nature
476
,
189
194
(
2011
).
7.
K.
Garello
,
C. O.
Avci
,
I. M.
Miron
,
M.
Baumgartner
,
A.
Ghosh
,
S.
Auffret
,
O.
Boulle
,
G.
Gaudin
, and
P.
Gambardella
, “
Ultrafast magnetization switching by spin-orbit torques
,” e-print arXiv:1310.5586 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (
2013
).
8.
S.
Emori
,
U.
Bauer
,
S.-M.
Ahn
,
E.
Martinez
, and
G. S. D.
Beach
,
Nat. Mater.
12
,
611
616
(
2013
).
9.
Y. A.
Bychkov
and
E. I.
Rashba
,
J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys.
17
,
6039
6045
(
1984
).
10.
D. A.
Pesin
and
A. H.
MacDonald
,
Phys. Rev. B
86
,
014416
(
2012
).
11.
L.
Liu
,
O. J.
Lee
,
T. J.
Gudmundsen
,
D. C.
Ralph
, and
R. A.
Buhrman
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
109
,
096602
(
2012
).
12.
M. I.
D'yakonov
and
V. I.
Perel
,
ZhETF Pis. Red.
13
(
11
),
657
660
(
1971
).
13.
M. I.
D'yakonov
and
V. I.
Perel
,
Phys. Lett. A
35
(
6
),
459
(
1971
).
14.
A.
Manchon
, “Spin Hall effect versus Rashba torque: a Diffusive Approach,” e-print arXiv:1204.4869 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (
2012
).
15.
W. S.
Zhao
,
T.
Devolder
,
Y.
Lakys
,
J. O.
Klein
,
C.
Chappert
, and
P.
Mazoyer
,
Microelectron. Reliab.
51
,
1454
1458
(
2011
).
16.
J. A.
Katine
and
E. E.
Fullerton
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
320
(
7
),
1217
1226
(
2008
).
17.
L.
Liu
,
C.-F.
Pai
,
Y.
Li
,
H. W.
Tseng
,
D. C.
Ralph
, and
R. A.
Buhrman
,
Science
336
,
555
(
2012
).
18.
C. O.
Avci
,
K.
Garello
,
I. M.
Miron
,
G.
Gaudin
,
S.
Auffret
,
O.
Boulle
, and
P.
Gambardella
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
100
,
212404
(
2012
).
19.
Z.
Li
and
S.
Zhang
,
Phys. Rev. B
69
,
134416
(
2004
).
20.
M.
Laufenberg
,
W.
Bührer
,
D.
Bedau
,
P.-E.
Melchy
,
M.
Kläui
,
L.
Vila
,
G.
Faini
,
C. A. F.
Vaz
,
J. A. C.
Bland
, and
U.
Rüdiger
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
97
,
046602
(
2006
).
21.
See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4896225 for the temperature estimation in the nanowires during pulse injection.
22.
M.
Yamanouchi
,
A.
Jander
,
P.
Dhagat
,
S.
Ikeda
,
F.
Matsukura
, and
H.
Ohno
,
IEEE Magn. Lett.
2
,
3000304
(
2011
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.