Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging is used to map the local three dimensional strain inhomogeneity and electron density distribution of two individual LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δ cathode nanoparticles in both ex-situ and in-situ environments. Our reconstructed images revealed a maximum strain of 0.4%. We observed different variations in strain inhomogeneity due to multiple competing effects. The compressive/tensile component of the strain is connected to the local lithium content and, on the surface, interpreted in terms of a local Jahn-Teller distortion of Mn3+. Finally, the measured strain distributions are discussed in terms of their impact on competing theoretical models of the lithiation process.
Nanoscale strain mapping in battery nanostructures
A. Ulvestad, H. M. Cho, R. Harder, J. W. Kim, S. H. Dietze, E. Fohtung, Y. S. Meng, O. G. Shpyrko; Nanoscale strain mapping in battery nanostructures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 17 February 2014; 104 (7): 073108. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4866030
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