We report on laser surface structuring of silicon using Ti:Sa femtosecond laser ablation with optical vortex beams. A q-plate is used to generate an optical vortex beam with femtosecond pulse duration through spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light. The variation of the produced surface structures is investigated as a function of the number of pulses, N, at laser fluence slightly above the ablation threshold value. At low N (≈10), only surface corrugation of the irradiated, ring-shaped area is observed. This is followed by a progressive formation of regular ripples at larger N (≈100–500), which eventually transform in smaller columnar structures for N ≈ 1000. Moreover, the central, non-ablated part is gradually decorated by nanoparticles produced during laser ablation, a process which eventually leads to the formation of a central turret of assembled nanoparticles. Our experimental findings suggest the importance of a feedback mechanism and a cumulative effect on the formation of ripples with interesting patterns not achievable by the more standard beams with a Gaussian intensity profile.

1.
Laser Precision Microfabrication
, edited by
K.
Sugioka
,
M.
Meunier
, and
A.
Piqué
(
Springer
,
Heidelberg
,
2010
).
2.
K.
Sugioka
and
Y.
Cheng
,
Light: Sci. Appl.
3
,
e149
(
2014
).
3.
A. Y.
Vorobyev
and
C.
Guo
,
Laser Photonics Rev.
7
,
385
(
2013
).
4.
E. G.
Gamaly
and
A. V.
Rode
,
Prog. Quantum Electron.
37
,
215
(
2013
).
5.
C.
Hnatovsky
,
V. G.
Shvedov
,
W.
Krolikowski
, and
A. V.
Rode
,
Opt. Lett.
35
,
3417
(
2010
).
6.
C.
Hnatovsky
,
V. G.
Shvedov
,
N.
Shostka
,
A. V.
Rode
, and
W.
Krolikowski
,
Opt. Lett.
37
,
226
(
2012
).
7.
B.
Wetzel
,
C.
Xie
,
P.-A.
Lacourt
,
J. M.
Dudley
, and
F.
Courvoisier
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
,
241111
(
2013
).
8.
K.
Lou
,
S.-X.
Qian
,
X.-L.
Wang
,
Y.
Li
,
B.
Gu
,
C.
Tu
, and
H.-T.
Wang
,
Opt. Express
20
,
120
(
2012
).
9.
Y.
Jin
,
O. J.
Allegre
,
W.
Perrie
,
K.
Abrams
,
J.
Ouyang
,
E.
Fearon
,
S. P.
Edwardson
, and
G.
Dearden
,
Opt. Express
21
,
25333
(
2013
).
10.
L.
Marrucci
,
C.
Manzo
, and
D.
Paparo
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
96
,
163905
(
2006
).
11.
L.
Marrucci
,
E.
Karimi
,
S.
Slussarenko
,
B.
Piccirillo
,
E.
Santamato
,
E.
Nagali
, and
F.
Sciarrino
,
J. Opt.
13
,
064001
(
2011
).
12.
S.
Amoruso
,
R.
Bruzzese
,
N.
Spinelli
,
R.
Velotta
,
M.
Vitiello
, and
X.
Wang
,
Europhys. Lett.
67
,
404
(
2004
).
13.
J.
Bonse
,
K.-W.
Brzezinka
, and
A. J.
Meixner
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
221
,
215
(
2004
).
14.
J.
Bonse
,
S.
Baudach
,
J.
Krüger
,
W.
Kautek
, and
M.
Lenzner
,
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
74
,
19
(
2002
).
15.
X.
Ni
,
K. K.
Anoop
,
X.
Wang
,
D.
Paparo
,
S.
Amoruso
, and
R.
Bruzzese
, “
Dynamics of femtosecond laser-produced plasma ions
,”
Appl. Phys. A
(published online).
16.
S.
Slussarenko
,
A.
Murauski
,
T.
Du
,
V.
Chigrinov
,
L.
Marrucci
, and
E.
Santamato
,
Opt. Express
19
,
4085
(
2011
).
17.
F.
Cardano
,
E.
Karimi
,
S.
Slussarenko
,
L.
Marrucci
,
C.
de Lisio
, and
E.
Santamato
,
Appl. Opt.
51
,
C1
(
2012
).
18.
S.
Amoruso
,
R.
Bruzzese
,
N.
Spinelli
,
R.
Velotta
,
M.
Vitiello
,
X.
Wang
,
G.
Ausanio
,
V.
Iannotti
, and
L.
Lanotte
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
84
,
4502
(
2004
).
19.
A.
Pereira
,
P.
Delaporte
,
M.
Sentis
,
W.
Marine
,
A. L.
Thomann
, and
C.
Boulmer-Leborgne
,
J. Appl. Phys.
98
,
064902
(
2005
).
20.
X.
Jia
,
T. Q.
Jia
,
N. N.
Peng
,
D. H.
Feng
,
S. A.
Zhang
, and
Z. R.
Sun
,
J. Appl. Phys.
115
,
143102
(
2014
).
21.
J.
Bonse
,
A.
Rosenfeld
, and
J.
Krüger
,
J. Appl. Phys.
106
,
104910
(
2009
).
22.
T. J.-Y.
Derrien
,
T. E.
Itina
,
R.
Torres
,
T.
Sarnet
, and
M.
Sentis
,
J. Appl. Phys.
114
,
083104
(
2013
).
23.
J.
Reif
,
O.
Varlamova
,
S.
Varlamov
, and
M.
Bestehorn
,
AIP Conf. Proc.
1464
,
428
(
2012
).
24.
G. D.
Tsibidis
,
M.
Barberoglou
,
P. A.
Loukakos
,
E.
Stratakis
, and
C.
Fotakis
,
Phys. Rev. B
86
,
115316
(
2012
).
25.
J. Z. P.
Skolski
,
G. R. B. E.
Römer
,
J.
Vincenc Obona
, and
A. J.
Huis in 't Veld
,
J. Appl. Phys.
115
,
103102
(
2014
).
You do not currently have access to this content.