Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ∼517 μm-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (∼78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66 V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.
Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment
Chan-Shan Yang, Tsung-Ta Tang, Ru-Pin Pan, Peichen Yu, Ci-Ling Pan; Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment. Appl. Phys. Lett. 7 April 2014; 104 (14): 141106. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4871255
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