We develop a super-saturation technique to extend the previously established doping density limit for ultra-high vacuum monolayer doping of silicon with phosphorus. Through an optimized sequence of PH3 dosing and annealing of the silicon surface, we demonstrate a 2D free carrier density of ns = (3.6 ± 0.1) × 1014 cm−2, ∼50% higher than previously reported values. We perform extensive characterization of the dopant layer resistivity, including room temperature depth-dependent in situ four point probe measurements. The dopant layers remain conductive at less than 1 nm from the sample surface and importantly, surpass the semiconductor industry target for ultra-shallow junction scaling of <900Ω1 at a depth of 7 nm.

1.
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2011, Table FEP12.
2.
P. A.
Packan
,
Science
285
,
2079
(
1999
).
3.
A. T.
Fiory
,
J. Electron. Mater.
31
,
981
(
2002
).
4.
E.
Bustarret
,
C.
Marcenat
,
P.
Achatz
,
J.
Kacmarcik
,
F.
Lévy
,
A.
Huxley
,
L.
Ortéga
,
E.
Bourgeois
,
X.
Blase
,
D.
Débarre
, and
J.
Boulmer
,
Nature
444
,
465
(
2006
).
5.
P.
Citrin
,
D.
Muller
,
H.-J.
Gossmann
,
R.
Vanfleet
, and
P.
Northrup
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
83
,
3234
(
1999
).
6.
K.
Suzuki
,
Y.
Tada
,
Y.
Kataoka
,
K.
Kawamura
,
T.
Nagayama
,
S.
Nagayama
,
C.
Magee
,
T.
Buyuklimanli
,
D.
Mueller
,
W.
Fichtner
, and
C.
Zechner
,
IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
54
,
1985
(
2007
).
7.
P.
Voyles
,
D.
Chadi
,
P.
Citrin
,
D.
Muller
,
J.
Grazul
,
P.
Northrup
, and
H.-J.
Gossmann
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
91
,
125505
(
2003
).
8.
D.
Mueller
and
W.
Fichtner
,
Phys. Rev. B
70
,
245207
(
2004
).
9.
C.-Y.
Moon
,
W.-J.
Lee
, and
K. J.
Chang
,
Nano Lett.
8
,
3086
(
2008
).
10.
D.
Mueller
and
W.
Fichtner
,
Phys. Rev. B
73
,
035210
(
2006
).
11.
H.-J.
Gossmann
and
E. F.
Schubert
,
Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
18
,
1
(
1993
).
12.
S. R.
McKibbin
,
W. R.
Clarke
,
A.
Fuhrer
,
T. C. G.
Reusch
, and
M. Y.
Simmons
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
95
,
233111
(
2009
).
13.
M.
Fuechsle
,
J. A.
Miwa
,
S.
Mahapatra
,
H.
Ryu
,
S.
Lee
,
O.
Warschkow
,
L. C. L.
Hollenberg
,
G.
Klimeck
, and
M. Y.
Simmons
,
Nat. Nanotechnol.
7
,
242
(
2012
).
14.
B.
Weber
,
S.
Mahapatra
,
H.
Ryu
,
S.
Lee
,
A.
Fuhrer
,
T. C. G.
Reusch
,
D. L.
Thompson
,
W. C. T.
Lee
,
G.
Klimeck
,
L. C. L.
Hollenberg
, and
M. Y.
Simmons
,
Science
335
,
64
(
2012
).
15.
H.
Wilson
,
O.
Warschkow
,
N.
Marks
,
N.
Curson
,
S.
Schofield
,
T.
Reusch
,
M.
Radny
,
P.
Smith
,
D.
McKenzie
, and
M.
Simmons
,
Phys. Rev. B
74
,
195310
(
2006
).
16.
D.-S.
Lin
,
T.-S.
Ku
, and
T.-J.
Sheu
,
Surf. Sci.
424
,
7
(
1999
).
17.
J.
Bennett
,
O.
Warschkow
,
N.
Marks
, and
D.
McKenzie
,
Phys. Rev. B
79
,
165311
(
2009
).
18.
L.
Kipp
,
R.
Bringans
,
D.
Biegelsen
,
J.
Northrup
,
A.
Garcia
, and
L.-E.
Swartz
,
Phys. Rev. B
52
,
5843
(
1995
).
19.
M.
Copel
and
R.
Tromp
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
72
,
1236
(
1994
).
20.
J.-Y.
Ji
and
T.-C.
Shen
,
Phys. Rev. B
70
,
115309
(
2004
).
21.
R. J.
Hamers
,
Y.
Wang
, and
J.
Shan
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
107
,
25
(
1996
).
22.
Y.
Suwa
,
S.
Matsuura
,
M.
Fujimori
,
S.
Heike
,
T.
Onogi
,
H.
Kajiyama
,
T.
Hitosugi
,
K.
Kitazawa
,
T.
Uda
, and
T.
Hashizume
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
90
,
156101
(
2003
).
23.
K.
Goh
,
L.
Oberbeck
,
M.
Simmons
,
A.
Hamilton
, and
M.
Butcher
,
Phys. Rev. B
73
,
035401
(
2006
).
24.
S.
Hikami
,
A. I.
Larkin
, and
Y.
Nagaoka
,
Prog. Theor. Phys.
63
,
707
(
1980
).
25.
C. M.
Polley
,
W. R.
Clarke
,
J. A.
Miwa
,
M. Y.
Simmons
, and
J. W.
Wells
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
,
262105
(
2012
).
26.
C. M.
Polley
,
W. R.
Clarke
,
J. A.
Miwa
,
G.
Scappucci
,
J. W.
Wells
,
D. L.
Jaeger
,
M. R.
Bischof
,
R. F.
Reidy
,
B. P.
Gorman
, and
M.
Simmons
,
ACS Nano
7
,
5499
(
2013
).
27.
D. K.
Schroder
,
Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization
(
Wiley
,
New York
,
1990
), p.
206
.
You do not currently have access to this content.