Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to , where and are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.
Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The “propeller blades” of high power impulse magnetron sputtering
André Anders, Matjaž Panjan, Robert Franz, Joakim Andersson, Pavel Ni; Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The “propeller blades” of high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 September 2013; 103 (14): 144103. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4823827
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