A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to create arrays of core-shell structures in a specimen of amorphous SiO2 doped with Ge. The same electron microscope is then used to measure the changes that occurred in the specimen in three dimensions using electron tomography. The results show that transformations in insulators that have been subjected to intense irradiation using charged particles can be studied directly in three dimensions. The fabricated structures include core-shell nano-columns, sputtered regions, voids, and clusters.

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Details about tia and inspect3d software can be found at the webpage of the manufacturer FEI.
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See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4731765 for preparation methods and experimental results using off-axis holography, AFM and high-resolution STEM.

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