X-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic structure of multiferroic orthorhombic LuMnO3 polycrystalline samples and strained, twin-free orthorhombic (1–10) LuMnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (1–10) YAlO3 substrates. For all o-LuMnO3 samples x-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy spectra reveal that the pre-edge structure is influenced by the increase in MnO6 distortion as a result of the smaller Re-ion or film strain. Furthermore there is clear evidence of anisotropic Mn-O bonding and Mn orbital ordering along the c- and  direction. The experimental film and bulk data are in agreement with ab initio simulations.
Experimental and ab initio investigations of the x-ray absorption near edge structure of orthorhombic LuMnO3
Y. Hu, C. N. Borca, E. Kleymenov, M. Nachtegaal, B. Delley, M. Janousch, A. Dönni, M. Tachibana, H. Kitazawa, E. Takayama-Muromachi, M. Kenzelmann, C. Niedermayer, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, C. W. Schneider; Experimental and ab initio investigations of the x-ray absorption near edge structure of orthorhombic LuMnO3. Appl. Phys. Lett. 18 June 2012; 100 (25): 252901. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4729002
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