Environmentally friendly and animal free leather also known as “vegan leather” or ‘’artificial leather’’, is an alternative biomaterial produced without the use of any animal component. This biobased material compared to traditional leather shows similar physico-chemical and mechanical properties. Moreover, recent studies show that this class of materials are gradually gaining market in the fashion industry as leather substitutes. In the present study, efforts toward the preparation of such biobased materials using novel formulations agro-waste components is accomplished. Different compositions of the leather-like materials are successfully fabricated using waste maple leave (5-10%) and apple fruit (0-10%) pulp, mixed with additives such as kombucha biomass cellulose (25-40%), biodegradable polyesters (0-25%), and plasticizers (5-20%). The prepared biocomposite materials are characterized for morphology, mechanical, adhesion, and water absorptive properties. SEM results confirm that the fabricated biocomposites are porous and breathable. In addition, tensile, DMA, and adhesion analysis showed that the materials are flexible with considerable mechanical strength. To conclude, this material may be considered as a prospective leather alternative for application in leather accessories, such as handbags and upper shoe sole.

1.
Fernandes
,
M.
,
M.
Gama
,
F.
Dourado
, and
A.P.
Souto
,
Development of novel bacterial cellulose composites for the textile and shoe industry
.
Microbial Biotechnology
,
2019
.
12
(
4
): p.
650
661
.
2.
Rathinamoorthy
,
R.
, Consumer's Awareness on Sustainable Fashion, in Sustainable Fashion: Consumer Awareness and Education,
S.S.
Muthu
, Editor.
2019
,
Springer
Singapore: Singapore
. p.
1
36
.
3.
McNeill
,
L.
and
R.
Moore
,
Sustainable fashion consumption and the fast fashion conundrum: fashionable consumers and attitudes to sustainability in clothing choice
.
International Journal of Consumer Studies
,
2015
.
39
(
3
): p.
212
222
.
4.
Vaisanen
,
T.
,
A.
Haapala
,
R.
Lappalainen
, and
L.
Tomppo
,
Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review
.
Waste Management
,
2016
.
54
: p.
62
73
.
5.
Ng
,
F.M.
and
P.W.
Wang
,
Natural self-grown fashion from bacterial cellulose: a paradigm shift design approach in fashion creation
.
The Design Journal
,
2016
.
19
(
6
): p.
837
855
.
6.
Garcia
,
C.
and
M.A.
Prieto
,
Bacterial cellulose as a potential bioleather substitute for the footwear industry
.
Microbial Biotechnology
,
2019
.
12
(
4
): p.
582
585
.
7.
Iguchi
,
M.
,
S.
Yamanaka
, and
A.
Budhiono
,
Bacterial cellulose—a masterpiece of nature's arts
.
Journal of materials science
,
2000
.
35
(
2
): p.
261
270
.
8.
Picheth
,
G.F.
,
C.L.
Pirich
,
M.R.
Sierakowski
,
M.A.
Woehl
,
C.N.
Sakakibara
,
C.F.
de Souza
,
A.A.
Martin
,
R.
da Silva
, and
R.A.
de Freitas
,
Bacterial cellulose in biomedical applications: A review
.
International journal of biological macromolecules
,
2017
.
104
: p.
97
106
.
9.
Nam
,
C.
and
Y.A.
Lee
,
Multilayered Cellulosic Material as a Leather Alternative in the Footwear Industry
.
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal
,
2019
.
37
(
1
): p.
20
34
.
10.
Material District. Malai biocomposite
.
2019
March 08, 2019]; Available from: https://materialdistrict.com/material/malai/.
11.
Chen
,
H.
,
Y.
Yu
,
T.
Zhong
,
Y.
Wu
,
Y.
Li
,
Z.
Wu
, and
B.
Fei
,
Effect of alkali treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of individual bamboo fibers
.
Cellulose
,
2017
.
24
(
1
): p.
333
347
.
12.
BASF, Pocket book for leather technologist
. 4th ed.
2007
, Aktiengesellschaft, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany.
454
.
13.
Kong
,
I.
,
J.
Shang
,
K.
Tshai
, and
A.
Sciences
,
Study of properties of coconut fibre reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol) as biodegradable composites
.
ARPN Journal of Engineering
,
2016
.
11
(
1
): p.
135
143
.
14.
Kakroodi
,
A.R.
,
Y.
Kazemi
,
D.
Rodrigue
, and
C.B.
Park
,
Facile production of biodegradable PCL/PLA in situ nanofibrillar composites with unprecedented compatibility between the blend components
.
Chemical Engineering Journal
,
2018
.
351
: p.
976
984
.
15.
Dmitruk
,
A.
,
P.
Mayer
,
J.
Pach
, and
Technology, Pull-off strength of thermoplastic fiber-reinforced composite coatings
.
Journal of adhesion science
,
2018
.
32
(
9
): p.
997
1006
.
16.
Wan
,
Y.
,
H.
Luo
,
F.
He
,
H.
Liang
,
Y.
Huang
, and
X.
Li
,
Mechanical, moisture absorption, and biodegradation behaviours of bacterial cellulose fibre-reinforced starch biocomposites
.
Composites Science and Technology
,
2009
.
69
(
7-8
): p.
1212
1217
.
This content is only available via PDF.