Hydroxyapatite-chitosan (HAp-chitosan) composites can be synthesized into injectable bone substitute by adding hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a suspending agent. This material allows the filling of empty cavities due to osteoporosis. The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize, to characterize, and to measure the viscosity, contact angle, and toxicity of the HAp-chitosan composites as an injectable bone substitute with the addition of HPMC. The HAp-chitosan composite with an HPMC ratio of 3 showed the highest average viscosity (99 dPa.s and 158 °) compared to the HPMC ratios of 1 and 2 (4 and 46 dPa.s) and (55 and 111°), respectively. The infrared spectrum, X-ray diffractogram, and the morphology based on scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of all samples give satisfactory data. The result of Ca/P ratio is 1.72. The toxicity tests on all three samples using the sperm toxicity method showed a percentage of viability above 50%. Overall, the HAp-chitosan composites can be used as an injectable bone substitute, although the hardening ability is still poor and the viability has not reached 90%.

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