The phenolic, alkaloids, and essential oil of black pepper are potential as an antioxidant, antibacterial, and expected to be able to degrade Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant, antibacterial, and Streptococcus mutans biofilm degradation activities of extract with different solvents (water, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate) and essential oils of black pepper seeds. All extracts, essential oils, and piperin as component of black pepper were active as antioxidant based on phosphomolybdate method. The most active antioxidant is the essential oils (139.05 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample) which more active than that of BHT (30.62 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Qualitative identification of the active antioxidant compounds was performed by thin layer chromatography-bioautography. Ethyl acetate extract, chloroform, and ethanol gave 4-5 active bands as antioxidant. The extracts and essential oils of black pepper has low antibacterial activity against S. mutans. To degrade the S. mutans biofilms, piperin showed the highest capability of 48% at the concentration of 2000 µg/mL followed by the essential oils with capability of 41% at the same concentration. In conclusion, the essential oils of black pepper was the most active as antioxidant and S. mutans degradation.

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