Doxorubicin is a chemotherapy drug, which has been widely approved and sufficient to suppress cancer cell growth. However, it also possesses a side effect regarding the immune system suppression. The rhizome of temu ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) contains various monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds, which have been proven to exert immunostimulating activity. This research aims to explore the potency of temu ireng rhizome as an immunostimulating agent after immune suppression following doxorubicin treatment. Temu ireng extract (TIE) was obtained by steam distillation. The IC50 value of doxorubicin-based on a cell viability assay on primary lymphocytes isolated from mice was 2 µM, while TIE at the concentration of 10 µg · mL−1 to 50 µg · mL−1 increased the cell viability. Combination of doxorubicin and TIE significantly increased the cell viability compared to doxorubicin-treated and untreated cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that TIE at a concentration of 10 µg · mL−1 was able to increase the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells compared to untreated cells. Molecular docking examination showed that the docking score of curdione, a major compound of TIE, to CD95 was lower than the native ligand. It can be concluded that TIE is potential to be developed as an immunostimulating agent to counter the immune system suppression induced by doxorubicin.

1.
G.
Minotti
,
S.
Recalcati
,
P.
Menna
,
E.
Salvatorelli
,
G.
Corna
, and
G.
Cairo
,
Methods Enzymol.
378
,
340
361
, (
2004
).
2.
S.
Han
,
S. B.
Kim
,
S. S.
Kang
,
W. C.
Noh
,
N. S.
Paik
,
E. S.
Chang
,
J. R.
Kim
, et al,
Breast Cancer Res. Tr.
98
(
1
),
57
61
(
2006
).
3.
X. Y.
Zhang
,
W. G.
Li
,
Y. J.
Wu
, and
M. T.
Gao
,
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
57
(
8
),
1043
1051
(
2005
).
4.
R. E.
Maccormick
,
Med. Hypotheses
67
(
2
),
212
215
(
2006
).
5.
D.
Barman
,
P.
Nen
,
S. C.
Mandal
, and
V.
Kumar
,
J. Marine Sci. Res.
3
,
134
(
2013
).
6.
R. C.
Silveira e Sá
,
L. N.
Andrade
, and
D. P.
de Sousa
,
Molecules
18
,
1227
1254
, (
2013
).
7.
N.
Hasanah
, “
Aktivitas ekstrak etanol temu ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) terhadap imunosurveillance tikus putih melalui histopatologi limpa, kadar sitokin IL–2 dan IL–12 [The activity of ethanol extract of temu ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) on immunosurveillance of rats through spleen histopathology, levels of IL-2 and IL-12 cytokines]
,” M. Sc. Thesis,
Institut Pertanian Bogor
,
2016
. [
Bahasa Indonesia
].
8.
M. J.
Smyth
,
G. P.
Dunn
,
R. D.
Schreiber
,
Adv. Immunol.
90
,
1
50
(
2006
).
9.
Z.
Ding
and
G.
Zhou
,
J. Immunol. Res.
2012
,
1
12
(
2012
).
10.
E.
Sasmito
,
S.
Mulyaningsih
,
E. K.
Untari
, and
R.
Widyaningrum
,
Indonesian J. Pharm.
17
(
3
),
156
161
(
2006
).
11.
M.
Ikawati
,
A.
Karamina
,
S.
Ediati
, and
R.
Susidarti
,
Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia
9
,
20
26
(
2011
). [Bahasa Indonesia].
12.
H.
Purnomo
, “Kimia Komputasi: Molecular Docking PLANTS Penambatan Molekul PLANTS [Protein– Ligand–Ant–System] (“Ilmu Semut”) [Computational Chemistry: Molecular Docking PLANTS, Molecular tethering PLANTS (Protein–Ligand–Ant–System) (“Ants Science”)], (
Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta
,
2011
), pp.
3
183
. [Bahasa Indonesia].
13.
P. R.
Walker
,
P.
Saas
, and
P.
Dietrich
,
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
10
(
5
),
564
572
(
1998
).
This content is only available via PDF.