ePix10K is a hybrid pixel detector developed at SLAC for demanding free-electron laser (FEL) applications, providing an ultrahigh dynamic range (245 eV to 88 MeV) through gain auto-ranging. It has three gain modes (high, medium and low) and two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). The first ePix10K cameras are built around modules consisting of a sensor flip-chip bonded to 4 ASICs, resulting in 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm x 100 µm each. We present results from extensive testing of three ePix10K cameras with FEL beams at LCLS, resulting in a measured noise floor of 245 eV rms, or 67 e− equivalent noise charge (ENC), and a range of 11 000 photons at 8 keV. We demonstrate the linearity of the response in various gain combinations: fixed high, fixed medium, fixed low, auto-ranging high to low, and auto-ranging medium-to-low, while maintaining a low noise (well within the counting statistics), a very low cross-talk, perfect saturation response at fluxes up to 900 times the maximum range, and acquisition rates of up to 480 Hz. Finally, we present examples of high dynamic range x-ray imaging spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range (from a single photon to 11 000 photons/pixel/pulse at 8 keV). Achieving this high performance with only one auto-ranging switch leads to relatively simple calibration and reconstruction procedures. The low noise levels allow usage with long integration times at non-FEL sources. ePix10K cameras leverage the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors with high production yield and good availability, minimize development complexity through sharing the hardware, software and DAQ development with all other versions of ePix cameras, while providing an upgrade path to 5 kHz, 25 kHz and 100 kHz in three steps over the next few years, matching the LCLS-II requirements.
Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs
G. Blaj, A. Dragone, C. J. Kenney, F. Abu-Nimeh, P. Caragiulo, D. Doering, M. Kwiatkowski, B. Markovic, J. Pines, M. Weaver, S. Boutet, G. Carini, C.-E. Chang, P. Hart, J. Hasi, M. Hayes, R. Herbst, J. Koglin, K. Nakahara, J. Segal, G. Haller; Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs. AIP Conf. Proc. 15 January 2019; 2054 (1): 060062. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5084693
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