Synchrotron radiation is emitted from a bending magnet source in a wide ray fan which is collected by the first optical element in a beamline. In order to maximize angular acceptance, and hence flux, it is beneficial to increase the length of this mirror and optical design requirements may necessitate that the optical surface be over 1 m in length. Such mirrors also require cooling as they may be subject to high heat loads from the incident radiation. Two beamlines, B07 and B24, at Diamond Light Source, UK, use 1.4 m long toroidal mirrors which utilize a similar side-clamped cooling manifold design. While this scheme has been successful in providing effective cooling of the mirror, it has also been discovered that it introduces deformation of the radius of curvature which is sufficient to alter the focusing characteristics of the mirror. At both beamlines, the horizontal focus of the beam was found to differ by up to several meter from the design position at the exit slit which resulted in poor flux throughput, reduced energy resolution and other side effects. A pencil beam scan method has been used to diagnose this issue and infer the position of the focus and mirror shape. Through the use of a standalone chiller to alter the temperature of the water within the cooling loop, it has been possible to correct the distortion of the radius and restore the focus to its nominal position.
Compensation of x-ray mirror distortion by cooling temperature control
Matthew Hand, Hongchang Wang, Maria Harkiolaki, Federica Venturini, Rosa Arrigo, Pilar Ferrer-Escorihuela, Simon Alcock, Ioana Nistea, Andy Marshall, Stewart Scott, Liz Duke, Georg Held, Kawal Sawhney; Compensation of x-ray mirror distortion by cooling temperature control. AIP Conf. Proc. 15 January 2019; 2054 (1): 060044. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5084675
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