This study describes the properties of upgraded palm kernel shell (PKS) and mukah balingian (MB) coal by microwave irradiation pretreatment. The microwave power level and processing time were varied in this research. The pretreated samples were analysed for mass and energy yield, calorific value and proximate and elemental composition. The characteristics of pretreated samples were improved with increasing microwave power level and reaction time. The oxygen content, O/C ratio of upgraded sample were reduced with increasing microwave power level. The carbon content of pretreated PKS was closed to the untreated MB coal properties with comparable calorific value was obtained. The microwave power level of 450 W and processing time of 8 min were appropriate to upgrade the PKS and MB coal for co-gasification. Thus, it can be concluded that the change in physical and chemical properties of upgraded PKS and MB coal revealed the potential of applying these feedstocks in co-gasification for hydrogen production.

1.
S.
Heidenreich
and
P.U.
Foscolo
,
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
46
,
72
95
(
2015
).
2.
S.H.
Mohr
,
J.
Wang
,
G.
Ellem
,
J.
Ward
, and
D.
Giurco
,
Fuel
141
,
120
135
(
2015
).
3.
Z.
Rao
,
Y.
Zhao
,
C.
Huang
,
C.
Duan
, and
J.
He
,
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
46
,
1
11
(
2015
).
4.
W.
Xia
,
G.
Xie
, and
Y.
Peng
,
Powder Technol.
277
,
206
221
(
2015
).
5.
W.H.
Chen
,
J.
Peng
, and
X.T.
Bi
,
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
44
,
847
866
(
2015
).
6.
D.
Nhuchhen
,
P.
Basu
, and
B.
Acharya
,
Int. J. Renew. Energy Biofuels
2014
,
1
56
(
2014
).
7.
A.
Tahmasebi
,
J.
Yu
,
Y.
Han
, and
X.
Li
,
Fuel Process. Technol.
101
,
85
93
(
2012
).
8.
C.A.
Pickles
,
F.
Gao
, and
S.
Kelebek
,
Miner. Eng.
62
,
31
42
(
2014
).
9.
S.W.
Kingman
and
N.A.
Rowson
,
Miner. Eng.
11
,
1081
1087
(
1998
).
10.
S.
Matali
,
N.A.
Rahman
,
S.S.
Idris
,
N.
Yaacob
and
A.B.
Alias
,
Procedia Eng.
148
,
671
678
(
2016
)
11.
Y.F.
Huang
,
W.R.
Chen
,
P.T.
Chiueh
,
W.H.
Kuan
, and
S.L.
Lo
,
Bioresour. Technol.
123
,
1
7
(
2012
).
12.
A.
Tahmasebi
,
J.
Yu
,
X.
Li
, and
C.
Meesri
,
Fuel Process. Technol.
92
,
1821
1829
(
2011
).
13.
J.
Yu
,
A.
Tahmasebi
,
Y.
Han
,
F.
Yin
, and
X.
Li
,
Fuel Process. Technol.
106
,
9
20
(
2013
).
14.
H.
Sutcu
,
J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng.
38
,
245
249
(
2007
).
This content is only available via PDF.