The proof of concept of a novel metallization route for bifacial silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells by selective plating – i.e. organic mask-free, is demonstrated by a first lab scale solar cell (η=15.5%). A patterned metal-seed is inkjet-printed or deposited by PVD on a PVD-Al layer covering the ITO layer. The copper electroplating process is investigated considering different electrolytes and plating settings in order to selectively cover the metal-seed and not the PVD Al layer. As well a processing chemistry to etch the PVD-Al layer without affecting the ITO and the electroplated contact is presented.

1.
S.
de Wolf
,
A.
Descoeudres
,
Z. C.
Holman
, and
C.
Ballif
,
green
2
(
2012
).
2.
D.
Erath
,
M.
Pospischil
,
R.
Keding
,
M.
Jahn
,
I.
Lacmago Lontchi
,
A.
Lorenz
, and
F.
Clement
,
Energy Procedia
124
,
869
(
2017
).
3.
A.
Khanna
,
K.-U.
Ritzau
,
M.
Kamp
,
A.
Filipovic
,
C.
Schmiga
,
M.
Glatthaar
,
A. G.
Aberle
, and
T.
Mueller
,
Applied Surface Science
349
,
880
(
2015
).
4.
K.
Yoshikawa
,
H.
Kawasaki
,
W.
Yoshida
,
T.
Irie
,
K.
Konishi
,
K.
Nakano
,
T.
Uto
,
D.
Adachi
,
M.
Kanematsu
,
H.
Uzu
, and
K.
Yamamoto
,
Nat. Energy
2
,
17032
(
2017
).
5.
D.
Adachi
,
T.
Terashita
,
T.
Uto
,
J. L.
Hernández
, and
K.
Yamamoto
,
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
163
,
204
(
2017
).
6.
A.
Rodofili
,
W.
Wolke
,
L.
Kroely
,
M.
Bivour
,
G.
Cimiotti
,
J.
Bartsch
,
M.
Glatthaar
, and
J.
Nekarda
,
Sol. RRL
1
,
1700085
(
2017
).
7.
A.
Aguilar
,
S. Y.
Herasimenka
,
J.
Karas
,
H.
Jain
,
J.
Lee
,
K.
Munoz
,
L.
Michaelson
,
T.
Tyson
,
W. J.
Dauksher
, and
S.
Bowden
,
Proc. 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovolt. Spec. Conf
,
1972
(
2016
).
8.
J.
Geissbuhler
,
S.
de Wolf
,
A.
Faes
,
N.
Badel
,
Q.
Jeangros
,
A.
Tomasi
,
L.
Barraud
,
A.
Descoeudres
,
M.
Despeisse
, and
C.
Ballif
,
IEEE J. Photovoltaics
4
,
1055
(
2014
).
9.
M.
Zwegers
,
J.
Bertens
and
G.
van de Ven
,
going to be published in Energy Procedia
, (
2017
).
10.
A.
Lachowicz
,
J.
Geissbühler
,
A.
Faes
,
J.
Champliaud
,
J.
Hermans
,
J.
Lerat
,
P.
Ribeyron
,
C.
Roux
,
G.
Wahli
,
P.
Papet
,
B.
Strahm
,
J.
Horzel
,
C.
Ballif
and
M.
Despeisse
,
going to be published in Energy Procedia
, (
2017
).
11.
M. A.
Green
,
Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl.
19
,
911
(
2011
).
12.
M.
Hörteis
,
J.
Benick
,
J.
Nekarda
,
A.
Richter
,
R.
Preu
,
S. W.
Glunz
,
E.
Urrejola
,
K.
Peter
,
J.
Glatz-Reichenbach
,
E.
Wefringhaus
,
H.
Plagwitz
,
G.
Schubert
,
F. S.
Grasso
,
L.
Gautero
,
J.
Rentsch
,
R.
Lanzafame
,
A.
Ebong
,
I. B.
Cooper
,
B.
Rounsaville
,
K.
Tate
,
A.
Upadhyaya
,
A.
Rohatgi
,
M.
Hermle
,
J.
Bartsch
,
A.
Mondon
,
C.
Schetter
,
C.
Boulord
,
A.
Kaminski
,
Y.
Veschetti
,
D.
Blanc-Pelissier
,
B.
Grange
,
A.
Bettinelli
,
D.
Heslinga
,
M.
Lemiti
,
B.-J.
Godejohann
,
F.
Heinemeyer
,
C.
Mader
,
D.
Münster
,
T.
Dullweber
,
N.-P.
Harder
,
R.
Brendel
,
D.
Reinwand
,
P.
Hartmann
,
P.
Grunow
,
J.
Hoornsta
, and
G.
Beaucarne
,
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Metallization for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Status, trends and new directions
(
2010
).
13.
R.
Rohit
,
A.
Rodofili
,
G.
Cimiotti
,
J.
Bartsch
, and
M.
Glatthaar
,
Energy Procedia
124
,
901
(
2017
).
14.
M.
Glatthaar
,
R.
Rohit
,
A.
Rodofili
,
Y.
Snow
,
J.
Nekarda
, and
J.
Bartsch
,
IEEE J. Photovoltaics
7
,
1569
(
2017
).
15.
Smits
,
The bell system technical journal
(
1958
).
16.
S. B.
Walker
and
J. A.
Lewis
,
Journal of the American Chemical Society
134
,
1419
(
2012
).
17.
Reeves
,
IEEE Electron device letters EDL-3
(
1982
).
18.
I.
Serebrennikova
and
H. S.
White
,
Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.
4
,
B4
(
2001
).
19.
M.
Pourbaix
,
Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions
(
N. Ass. of Corrosion Engineers
,
1974
).
20.
M.
Rauer
,
A.
Mondon
,
C.
Schmiga
,
J.
Bartsch
,
M.
Glatthaar
, and
S. W.
Glunz
,
Energy Procedia
38
,
449
(
2013
).
This content is only available via PDF.