Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ∼ 76 USD to ∼ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (< 10 x) optical enhancement with Fresnel lenses, band-gap engineering for enhanced optical absorption, and newer, advanced solar cell configurations including partially transparent bifacial and back contact solar cells will be required. This paper will present a detailed, cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (∼ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

3.
Fundamentals of solar cells: Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion
, edited by
Alan
Fahrenbruch
and
Richard H.
Bube
,
Academic Press
,
Cambridge
,
1983
.
5.
A.
Goetzberger
,
C.
Hebling
, and
H.
Schock
,
Mater. Sci. Eng. R
40
,
1
46
(
2003
).
6.
A. G.
Aberle
,
Solar Energy materials & Solar Cells
65
,
239
248
(
2001
).
7.
Cheow Siu
Leong
,
Kamaruzzaman
Sopian
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Conf. Proc. 39th IEEE PVSC
,
2013
.
8.
C.
Voyer
,
D.
Biro
,
K.
Wagner
,
J.
Benick
, and
R.
Preu
,
Conf. Proc. 21Ist EUPVSEC
,
2006
.
9.
Pc1d.soft112.com.
10.
M. K. Mat
Desa
,
M. Y.
Sulaiman
,
Kamaruzzaman
Sopian
,
Suhaila
Sepeai
1,
Ayu Wazira
Azhari
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
International Journal of Engineering and Technology
,
2014
.
11.
M. K. Mat
Desa
,
S.
Sepeai
,
A.W.
Azhari
,
K.
Sopian
,
M. Y.
Sulaiman
,
N.
Amin
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review Journal
,
2016
.
12.
M.
Khairunaz
,
Suhaila
Sepeai
,
A. W
Azhari
,
K.
Sopian
,
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Conf. Proc. 39th IEEE PVSC
,
2013
.
13.
C.
Easter
and
C. B.
O’Neal
,
JOURNAL OF MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
18
,
1054
1061
(
2009
).
14.
Suhaila
Sepeai
,
S. L.
Cheow
,
M. Y.
Sulaiman
,
K.
Sopian
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Conf. Proc. 39th IEEE PVSC
,
2013
.
15.
P.
Ooshaksaraei
,
K.
Sopian
,
R.
Zulkifli
,
M. A.
Alghoul
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
International Journal of Photoenergy
, Article ID 465837 (
2013
).
16.
Suhaila
Sepeapi
, et al,
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy
3
(
2013
).
17.
Ivan Adidharma
Audwinto
,
Chan Hoy
Yen
,
K.
Sopian
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
11
,
873
878
(
2015
).
18.
H.
Sylvester
,
H.
Hakan
,
N.
Johan
,
K.
Bjorn
,
Solar Energy Material & Solar Cell
92
,
1347
1351
(
2008
).
19.
El-Ladan
,
A.H.
,
C.H.
Yen
,
M.H.
Ruslan
,
K.
Sopian
, and
Saleem H.
Zaidi
,
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
8
,
1319
1325
(
2014
).
This content is only available via PDF.