The lack of experimental validation for processes occurring at sub-micron length scales on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds hinders detonation model development. Particularly, quantification of late-time energy release requires measurement of carbon condensation kinetics behind detonation fronts. A new small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) endstation has been developed for use at The Dynamic Compression Sector to observe carbon condensation during detonation. The endstation and beamline demonstrate unprecedented fidelity; SAXS profiles can be acquired from single x-ray pulses, which in 24-bunch mode are about 80 ps in duration and arrive every 153.4 ns. This paper presents both the current temporal capabilities of this beamline, and the ability to distinguish different carbon condensate morphologies as they form behind detonation fronts. To demonstrate temporal capabilities, three shots acquired during detonation of hexanitrostilbene (HNS) are interleaved to show the evolution of the SAXS in about 50 ns steps. To show fidelity of the SAXS, the scattering from carbon condensates at several hundred nanoseconds varies with explosive: scattering from HNS is consistent with a complex morphology that we assert is associated with sp2 carbon., while Comp B scattering is consistent with soots containing three-dimensional diamond nanoparticles.
Measurement of carbon condensates using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of high explosives
T. M. Willey, M. Bagge-Hansen, L. Lauderbach, R. Hodgin, D. Hansen, C. May, T. van Buuren, D. M. Dattelbaum, R. L. Gustavsen, E. B. Watkins, M. A. Firestone, B. J. Jensen, T. Graber, S. Bastea, L. Fried; Measurement of carbon condensates using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of high explosives. AIP Conf. Proc. 13 January 2017; 1793 (1): 030012. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4971470
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