Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without 3He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with 3He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature Ti from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central 3He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the Ti profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LTi of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the Ti profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the 3He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.
Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks
M. J. Mantsinen, R. Bilato, V. V. Bobkov, A. Kappatou, R. M. McDermott, M. Nocente, T. Odstrčil, G. Tardini, M. Bernert, R. Dux, T. Hellsten, P. Mantica, M. Maraschek, S. K. Nielsen, J.-M. Noterdaeme, J. Rasmussen, F. Ryter, M. Stejner, J. Stober, M. Tardocchi, the ASDEX Upgrade Team, the EUROfusion MST1 Team; Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks. AIP Conf. Proc. 10 December 2015; 1689 (1): 030005. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4936470
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