Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si2+ and Al2+ cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail.

1.
Al-Hamdan
,
A.Z.
and
K.R.
Reddy
,
Transient behavior of heavy metals in soils during electrokinetic remediation.
Chemosphere
,
2008
.
71
(
5
): p.
860
871
.
2.
D.S.
Schultz
,
Electroosmosis technology for soil remediation: laboratory results, field trial, and economic modeling.
Journal of Hazardous Materials
,
1997
.
55
(
1–3
): p.
81
91
.
3.
A.
Kaya
, and
Y.
Yukselen
,
Zeta potential of soils with surfactants and its relevance to electrokinetic remediation
.
Journal of Hazardous Materials
,
2005
.
120
(
1–3
): p.
119
126
.
4.
J.
Shah
, and
R.K.
Kotnala
,
Humidity sensing exclusively by physisorption of water vapors on magnesium ferrite
.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
,
2012
.
171–172
(
0
): p.
832
837
.
5.
B.E.
Conway
,
Electrochemical surface science: The study of monolayers of ad-atoms and solvent molecules at charged metal interfaces
.
Progress in Surface Science
,
1984
.
16
(
1
): p.
1
137
.
6.
D. L.
Cocke
,
R.K.
V.
,
R. H.
Loeppert
Analysis of Soil Surfaces by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
.
Soil Science Society of America
,
1994
.
7.
J.F.
Watts
and
J.
Wolstenholme
, An introduction to surface analysis by XPS and AES.
John Wiley and Sons
,
2003
.
8.
G.
Yuan
, et al,
Assessing the surface composition of soil particles from some Podzolic soils by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
.
Geoderma
,
1998
.
86
(
3–4
): p.
169
181
.
9.
M.C.
Biesinger
, et al,
Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni
.
Applied Surface Science
,
2011
.
257
(
7
): p.
2717
2730
.
10.
D.
Ruiz-Serrano
, et al,
Study by XPS of different conditioning processes to improve the cation exchange in clinoptilolite
.
Journal of Molecular Structure
,
2010
.
980
(
1–3
): p.
149
155
.
11.
S.
Reiche
, et al,
Reactivity of mesoporous carbon against water – An in-situ XPS study
.
Carbon
,
2014
.
77
(
0
): p.
175
183
.
12.
M.C.
Biesinger
, et al,
Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn
.
Applied Surface Science
,
2010
.
257
(
3
): p.
887
898
.
13.
E.
Desimoni
, et al,
XPS investigation of ultra-high-vacuum storage effects on carbon fibre surfaces
.
Carbon
,
1992
.
30
(
4
): p.
527
531
.
This content is only available via PDF.