The problem of production and study of superheavy elements is discussed in the talk. Different nuclear reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are analyzed. Collisions of transactinide nuclei are investigated as an alternative way for production of neutron‐rich superheavy elements. In many events lifetime of the composite giant nuclear system consisting of two touching nuclei turns out to be rather long (⩾ 10−20 s); sufficient for observing line structure in spontaneous positron emission from super‐strong electric fields, a fundamental QED process.

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