Human exploration of Mars requires much greater supplies of propellants, fuels, breathable air, construction materials, and food, than can come from Earth. However, these materials can be robotically manufactured from CO2 and N2 in the Mars atmosphere and water ice from the North Polar Cap. A small nuclear powered robotic factory landed on the Polar Cap can manufacture and stockpile hundreds of tons of supplies under the ice for astronauts coming from Earth. Sub‐surface insulated ice caves can also provide insulated habitats to shield from cosmic radiation. Design and operation of the robotic factory is described including the nuclear reactor and chemical process units. The water‐cooled reactor uses commercial ZrO2 cermet nuclear fuel. Commercial chemical process technology would include water electrolysis, liquefaction of H2, O2, and air (N2/O2), methane and methanol production, and polyethylene synthesis from CO2 and N2, and algae and yeast foodstuffs from methanol feedstock. Development and mission scenarios for the Xanadu concept are described, with implementation possible within the next decade.

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