In a recent feasibility study, ORBITEC conceptualized systems and an evolving architecture for producing and utilizing Mars‐based in‐situ resources utilization (ISRU) propellant combinations. The propellants will be used to support the propulsion and power systems for ground and flight vehicles that would be part of Mars exploration and colonization. The key aspect of the study was to show the benefits of ISRU, develop an analysis methodology, as well as provide some guidance to future propellant system choices based upon what is known today about Mars. The study time frame included an early unmanned and manned exploration period (now to 2040) and a colonization period that occurs from 2040 to 2090. As part of this feasibility study, ORBITEC developed two different Mars colonization scenarios, namely a low case that ends with a 100‐person colony and a high case that ends with a 10.000‐person colony. A population growth model, mission traffic model, and infrastructure model was developed for each scenario to better understand the requirements of future Mars colonies. This paper outlines the characteristics of the Mars colonies that ORBITEC envisions under both colonization scenarios. This includes a discussion of the flow of people and materials between the Earth and Mars, the infrastructure requirements of the colonies, potential colony configurations, and the mission requirements of the colonies.

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