The awareness about the massive extraction of river sand increases because it intensifies the destruction of river. At the same time, the oyster shell waste disposal from fisheries industry is rising and pollutes the environment. Therefore, the present research explores the effect of using crushed oyster shell as a partial fine aggregate on the flowability, compressive strength, and water absorption of mortar. Four mortar mixtures were made by replacing 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the sand with crushed oyster shells. The mixtures were then tested on their flowability, strength, and water absorption. The findings show that at 28 days, all mixes reached the targeted strength, with values varying from 22.87 MPa to 35.20 MPa. Generally, using cockle shell as fine aggregate replacement would decrease the demand of natural river sand for the construction industry and the pollution caused from oyster shell waste dumping.

1.
T. P.
Huynh
and
S. H.
Ngo
, “
Waste incineration bottom ash as a fine aggregate in mortar: An assessment of engineering properties, durability, and microstructure
,”
J. Build. Eng.
, vol.
52
, no. January, p.
104446
,
2022
, doi: .
2.
K.
Sundaralingam
,
A.
Peiris
,
A.
Anburuvel
, and
N.
Sathiparan
, “
Quarry dust as river sand replacement in cement masonry blocks: Effect on mechanical and durability characteristics
,”
Materialia
, vol.
21
, no. January, p.
101324
,
2022
, doi: .
3.
K.
Poongodi
and
P.
Murthi
, “
Development of fibre reinforced green mortar made with waste brick material as fine aggregate for sustainable masonry construction
,”
Mater. Today Proc.
, vol.
68
, no. xxxx, pp.
1575
1580
,
2022
, doi: .
4.
D.
Workman
, “
Top Sand Exporters by Country
,”
Magazine Pro on Genesis Framework
,
2022
. https://www.worldstopexports.com/top-sand-exporters-by-country/.
5.
R.
Fritts
, “
The world needs to get serious about managing sand U.N. report says
,”
Science
,
2019
.
6.
N. F. A.
Jamaludin
,
K.
Muthusamy
,
N. N.
Isa
,
M. F. Md
Jaafar
, and
N.
Ghazali
, “
Use of spent garnet in industry: A review
,”
Mater. Today Proc.
, vol.
48
, pp.
728
733
,
2021
, doi: .
7.
K. G.
Santhosh
,
S. M.
Subhani
, and
A.
Bahurudeen
, “
Cleaner production of concrete by using industrial by-products as fine aggregate: A sustainable solution to excessive river sand mining
,”
J. Build. Eng.
, vol.
42
, no. March, pp.
1
17
,
2021
, doi: .
8.
E. S.
Rentier
and
L. H.
Cammeraat
, “
The environmental impacts of river sand mining
,”
Sci. Total Environ.
, vol.
838
, no. April, p.
155877
,
2022
, doi: .
9.
R.
Liu
,
D.
Chen
,
X.
Cai
,
Z.
Deng
, and
Y.
Liao
, “
Hardened properties of mortar mixtures containing pre-treated waste oyster shells
,”
J. Clean. Prod.
, vol.
266
, p.
121729
,
2020
, doi: .
10.
R.
Botta
,
F.
Asche
,
J. S.
Borsum
, and
E. V.
Camp
, “
A review of global oyster aquaculture production and consumption
,”
Mar. Policy
, vol.
117
, no. July 2019, p.
103952
,
2020
, doi: .
11.
H. N.
Ruslan
,
K.
Muthusamy
,
S. M. Syed
Mohsin
,
R.
Jose
, and
R.
Omar
, “
Oyster shell waste as a concrete ingredient: A review
,”
Mater. Today Proc.
, vol.
48
, pp.
713
719
,
2021
, doi: .
12.
Y.
Liao
,
X.
Wang
,
D.
Kong
,
B.
Da
, and
D.
Chen
, “
Experiment research on effect of oyster shell particle size on mortar transmission properties
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
375
, no. February, p.
131012
,
2023
, doi: .
13.
Y. C.
Lin
,
K. T. T.
Amesho
,
C. E.
Chen
,
P. C.
Cheng
, and
F. C.
Chou
, “
A cleaner process for green biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil using recycled waste oyster shells as a sustainable base heterogeneous catalyst under the microwave heating system
,”
Sustain. Chem. Pharm.
, vol.
17
, no. August, p.
100310
,
2020
, doi: .
14.
E. I.
Yang
,
S. T.
Yi
, and
Y. M.
Leem
, “
Effect of oyster shell substituted for fine aggregate on concrete characteristics: Part, I. Fundamental properties
,”
Cem. Concr. Res.
, vol.
35
, no.
11
, pp.
2175
2182
,
2005
, doi: .
15.
E. I.
Yang
,
M. Y.
Kim
,
H. G.
Park
, and
S. T.
Yi
, “
Effect of partial replacement of sand with dry oyster shell on the long-term performance of concrete
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
24
, no.
5
, pp.
758
765
,
2010
, doi: .
16.
H.
Wang
,
W.
Kuo
,
C.
Lin
, and
C.
Po-yo
, “
Study of the material properties of fly ash added to oyster cement mortar
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
41
, pp.
532
537
,
2013
, doi: .
17.
BS EN 197-1, “
Cement —Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements
,”
2000
.
18.
ASTM C1437, “
Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar
:,”
Standard
, pp.
7
8
,
2007
, [Online]. Available: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Standard+Test+Method+for+Flow+of+Hydraulic+Cement+Mortar#0.
19.
ASTM C109, “
ASTM C109 / C109M-20b. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50 mm] Cube Specimens)
,”
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
, vol.
04
. p.
9
,
2020
.
20.
ASTM C642, “
Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete, ASTM International, United States
,”
Annu. B. ASTM Stand.
, no. March, pp.
1
3
,
2006
.
21.
K. H.
Mo
,
U. J.
Alengaram
,
M. Z.
Jumaat
,
S. C.
Lee
,
W. I.
Goh
, and
C. W.
Yuen
, “
Recycling of seashell waste in concrete: A review
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
162
, pp.
751
764
,
2018
, doi: .
22.
Y.
Liao
,
J.
Fan
,
R.
Li
,
B.
Da
,
D.
Chen
, and
Y.
Zhang
, “
Influence of the usage of waste oyster shell powder on mechanical properties and durability of mortar
,”
Adv. Powder Technol.
, vol.
33
, no.
3
,
2022
, doi: .
23.
M. J.
Miah
,
A. John
Babafemi
,
Y.
Li
,
S. Ying
Kong
,
S. Chandra
Paul
, and
J. G.
Jang
, “
Impact of overburnt distorted brick aggregate on the performance of concrete at ambient temperature and after exposure to elevated temperatures
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
349
, no. July, p.
128792
,
2022
, doi: .
24.
W.
Ten Kuo
,
H. Y.
Wang
,
C. Y.
Shu
, and
D. S.
Su
, “
Engineering properties of controlled low-strength materials containing waste oyster shells
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
46
, pp.
128
133
,
2013
, doi: .
25.
K. C.
Panda
,
S.
Behera
, and
S.
Jena
, “
Effect of rice husk ash on mechanical properties of concrete containing crushed seashell as fine aggregate
,”
Mater. Today Proc.
, vol.
32
, pp.
838
843
,
2020
, doi: .
26.
M.
Borhan
and
S. N.
Mohamed
, “
Laboratory Study of Water Absorption of Modified Mortar
,”
J. Civ. Eng. Sci. Technol.
, vol.
2
, no.
1
, pp.
25
30
,
2011
, doi: .
27.
C.
Martínez-García
,
B.
González-Fonteboa
,
D.
Carro-López
, and
F.
Martínez-Abella
, “
Design and properties of cement coating with mussel shell fine aggregate
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, vol.
215
, pp.
494
507
,
2019
, doi: .
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.