The escalating quantity of industrial by-products, including oil palm shell (OPS) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) of palm oil industry which are disposed off as a waste pollutes the environment. Recovering these wastes for product manufacturing would contribute decrease waste discarded at landfill. This research will study the acid resistance of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete containing POFA as partial sand replacement. All concrete mixtures were produced by integrating OPS as coarse aggregate. Unground POFA was used as partial sand replacement up to 20% of fine aggregate. Specimens were immersed in acid solution for certain duration and measured its mass loss as well as compressive strength. Mix containing 10% POFA exhibit the highest resistance towards acid attack. The presence of higher amount of CSH gel and reduction in calcium hydroxide resulted in the lowest deterioration when exposed to an acidic environment. Conclusively, the use of unground fine POFA in concrete manufacturing can be an alternative method for sustainable construction.

1.
Watt
,
J.
(
2019
).
Concrete: the most destructive material on Earth. The Guardian
. Retrived from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/feb/25/concrete-the-most-destructive-material-on-earth.
2.
Dobiszewska
M.
,
Bagcal
,
O.
,
Beycioglu
,
A.
,
Goulias
,
D.
,
Koksal
,
F.
,
Plominski
,
B.
and
Urilnveren
,
H.
2023
Utilization of rock dust as cement replacement in cement composites: An alternative approach to sustainable mortar and concrete productions
,”
Journal of Building Engineering
,
69
,
106180
.
3.
Kachouh
,
N.
,
El-Hassan
,
H.
and
El-Maaddawy
,
T.
2019
Effect of steel fibers on the performance of concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates and dune sand
,”
Construction and Building Materials
,
213
,
348
359
.
4.
Verian
,
K. P.
,
Ashraf
,
W.
and
Cao
,
Y.
2018
Properties of recycled concrete aggregate and their influence in new concrete production
,”
Resources, Conservation and Recycling
,
133
,
30
49
.
5.
UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme. (
2019
).
Sand and sustainability: Finding new solutions for environmental governance of global sand resources
.
GRID-Geneva, Switzerland
.
6.
Silva
,
R. V.
,
de Brito
,
J.
and
Dhir
,
R. K.
2019
Use of recycled aggregates arising from construction and demolition waste in new construction applications
,”
Journal of Cleaner Production
,
236
,
117629
.
7.
Freedonia, World Construction Aggregates-Demand and Sales Forecasts, Market Share, Market Size, Market Leaders Industry study No. 3389
.
The Freedonia group
,
Cleveland Ohio, USA
(
2016
), p.
390
8.
Jamaludin
,
N.F.A.
,
Muthusamy
,
K.
,
Md Jaafar
,
M.F.
,
Putra Jaya
,
R.
and
Ismail
,
M.A.
2022
Performance of palm oil clinker lightweight aggregate concrete comprising spent garnet as fine aggregate replacement
,”
Advances in Civil Engineering
,
9674096
.
9.
Sairanen
,
M.
, and
Rinne
,
M.
2019
Dust emission from crushing of hard rock aggregates
,”
Atmospheric Pollution Research
,
10
(
2
),
656
664
.
10.
Adessina
,
A.
,
Ben Fraj
,
A.
,
Barthélémy
,
J. F.
,
Chateau
,
C.
and
Garnier
,
D.
2019
Experimental and micromechanical investigation on the mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregates concrete
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
,
126
,
105900
.
11.
Farahani
,
H.
, and
Bayazidi
,
S.
2018
Modeling the assessment of socio-economical and environmental impacts of sand mining on local communities: A case study of Villages Tatao River Bank in North-western part of Iran
,”
Resources Policy
,
55
,
87
95
.
12.
Barman
,
B.
,
Kumar
,
B.
, and
Sarma
,
A. K.
2019
Dynamic characterization of the migration of a mining pit in an alluvial channel
,”
International Journal of Sediment Research
,
34
(
2
),
155
165
.
13.
Muthusamy
,
K.
and
Nur Azzimah
,
Z.
2014
Exploratory study of palm oil fuel ash as partial cement replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete
,”
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
,
8
(
2
),
150
152
.
14.
Tai
,
Z. S.
,
Hubadillah
,
S. K.
,
Othman
,
M. H. D.
,
Dzahir
,
M. I. H. M.
,
Koo
,
K. N.
,
Tendot
,
N. I. S. T. I.
Ismail
,
A.F.
,
Jaafar
,
J.
and
Aziz
,
M. H. A.
2019
Influence of pre-treatment temperature of palm oil fuel ash on the properties and performance of green ceramic hollow fiber membranes towards oil/water separation application
,”
Separation and Purification Technology
,
222
,
264
277
.
15.
Kwek
,
S.Y.
,
Awang
,
H
,
Cheah
,
C.B.
and
Mohamad
,
H.
2022
Development of sintered aggregate derived from POFA and silt for lightweight concrete
,”
Journal of Building Engineering
,
49
,
104039
.
16.
BS EN 12390-3, Testing hardened concrete, Compressive strength of test specimens. London. BS EN 12390-3
,
2009
.
17.
Mailar
,
G.
,
Raghavendra
,
S.
,
Sreedaha
,
B. M.
,
Manu
,
D. S.
,
Parameshwar
,
H.
,
Jayakesh
,
K.
2016
Investigation of concrete produced using recycles aluminium gross for hot weather concreting conditions
,”
Resource-Efficient Technologies
,
2
(
2
),
68
80
.
18.
Ahmad Zawawi
,
M. N. A.
,
Muthusamy
,
K.
,
P.P. Abdul
Majeed
,
A.
,
Muazu
Musa
,
R.
, and
Mokhtar Albshir Budiea
,
A.
2020
Mechanical properties of oil palm waste lightweight aggregate concrete with fly ash as fine aggregate replacement
,”
Journal of Building Engineering
,
27
,
100924
.
19.
Awal
,
A. S. M. A.
and
Hussin
,
M. W.
1997
The effectiveness of palm oil fuel ash in preventing expansion due to alkali-silica reaction
.”
Cement and Concrete Composites
,
19
(
4
),
367
372
.
20.
Pham
,
V. T.
,
Meng
,
P.
,
Bui
,
P. T.
,
Ogawa
,
Y.
and
Kawai
,
K.
2020
Effects of Shirasu natural pozzolan and limestone powder on the strength and aggressive chemical resistance of concrete
,”
Construction and Building Materials
,
239
,
117679
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.