This paper discusses hardware-based methods for monitoring the operational parameters of marine diesel engines and online mathematical modeling techniques (digital twins) for calculating the emissions of CO2, NOx, soot, and other harmful pollutants. It is demonstrated that measuring and analyzing the engine’s vibrational diagrams in parallel with gas pressure diagrams in the cylinders allows the evaluation of the actual fuel injection and gas distribution timings. The obtained data is used to refine the mathematical model of the engine’s working process, which determines the engine’s indicator parameters and power, as well as the emission of harmful substances that need to be monitored in compliance with current IMO requirements. The authors have accumulated experience in using the discussed hardware-based methods for diagnosing marine engines during operation. The discussed hardware and software methods are used in the educational process at the engineering faculty of the marine university, as they provide a detailed analysis of the main components of the engine’s working process: the combustion process in the cylinder, the fuel injection process, and the gas distribution process.

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